A History of European Art

Rated 5 out of 5 by from Thoroughly enjoyable and educational I enjoyed this course for so many reasons. I went from a place of ignorance to gaining appreciation of how to look at art - paintings/ sculptures and architecture on many different levels. I particularly enjoyed Professor Kloss's warmth and humility. His love of art and history of art was absolutely contagious. I could go on but basically would highly recommend this course. I am looking forward to reviewing them over and over again.
Date published: 2020-03-03
Rated 5 out of 5 by from From various periods to individual works explained Excellent explanation of the various periods of European Art are combined with specific descriptions of selected master works that demonstrate the genius of the significant artists. The Professor broadened my knowledge of the components and skill from overall composition, colors, brush strokes and occasional little details.
Date published: 2019-12-31
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Leaves out too much great art History of European Art The rationale Prof Kloss used to choose the paintings he describes is idiosyncratic. For the most glaring example: the painting on the cover of the course handbook and on all the DVDs is Vermeer’s justly-famous “Girl with a Pearl Earring”. Kloss doesn’t discuss it or even show it. Instead he uses Vermeer’s “View of Delft”, surely the least original of his works. The point of the French Rococo was beautiful young women, frequently undressed, best exemplified by Boucher, who gets only one quite unrepresentative painting. Instead, we get four Chardin, including “Jar of Olives” plus an entire lecture devoted to the gardens at Versailles, with a poor view of the Hall of Mirrors. Kloss doesn’t like the female nude at all. Almost the sole exceptions are two Manet nudes, both famously scandalous: one is obviously a prostitute, and the other probably is (the same model for both actually was a prostitute - which Kloss does not mention). Up to the end of the 18th century Kloss concentrates on Italian art, and an entire lecture on Spanish art. Missing are Holbein and both Cranachs. And, amazingly, Tiepolo, probably because he specialized in strikingly beautiful nudes. For Kloss, Romanticism does not include Caspar David Friedrich, the uber-Romantic. In fact, his avoidance of German art is near total. He shows one Riemenschneider, and then gets its location wrong by about 500 kilometers – he has obviously never seen it on site. In the mid-19th century the focus is on ten (!) Daumier (which are not paintings at all and hardly art) and a limited range of Impressionists – the two Pissarros he uses are late works and hardly typical. He does not consider a wide range of great 19th century art: no Whistler, no Sergeant, no Pre-Raphaelites, no Mucha, no Art Deco, no Germans at all – no Stuck, Klimt, or Jugendstil. Instead, Cubism. What we have here is a list of Kloss’ narrow prejudices, and not a course on Western Art.
Date published: 2019-12-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent! This program is outstanding! The instructor brings so much detail to the viewer's attention. It's really great. I'm streaming it to my very large smart TV and the video quality is very good.
Date published: 2019-12-13
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Homerun Professor Kloss had another home run with this course. He is so very knowledgeable. This course span from about 800 AD to about 1945.
Date published: 2019-06-20
Rated 4 out of 5 by from I bought this course quite a long time ago and have been using it off and on ever since. One thing that absolutely positively amazes me is that in my issue of it, there is not one female highlighted, anywhere, anyplace. No discussion in all of European Art History does a female count. There were many! If this has been rectified--good, but I looked at the contents of the one on sale now and it doesn't appear to have changed from my book and DVD set. I hope Professor Kloss or someone else will fix this soon. Other than that, the course is good and I have learned much from it. Carol Morse
Date published: 2019-03-24
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I Now Know a Lot More about Art Great chronology and selection of representative art. Nice anecdotal information too.
Date published: 2019-03-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Thoroughly enjoyed this course! Really enjoyed this course and Professor Kloss's detailed knowledge, passion and reverence for the great works. I looked forward to each lecture and wasn't disappointed. If you enjoy art and want to have a more comprehensive knowledge of the top European artists and works of art, this is a great course. Well worth the investment of your time and money.
Date published: 2019-03-08
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great Course This was an educational and enjoyable course that I watched over the course of a few months. I had previously watched two art history courses covering masterpieces in the Louvre (Bretell) and the National Gallery (Scallen), and this was equally as good or better. I am a baby boomer, and Professor Kloss to me is a "gentleman of the old school", a reminder of how professors used to be in days gone by: soft-spoken, dryly humorous, informative but not showy. As has been noted by other reviewers this course is long on trees but short on forest, which to me is more of a feature than a bug. I followed the course with rapt interest until it arrived at Honore Daumier in the 1800's, a French caricaturist raised to the status of an artist for reasons having more to do with the professor's social sympathies or political preferences than Daumier's artistic abilities. I lost interest again in the later lectures addressing modern art (the lecture on Rodin excepted), despite the teacher's quoting Pablo Picasso no less to the effect that my failure to appreciate abstract art is attributable to my own unwillingness to make the effort. Well, okay, so be it. Nevertheless, I made the effort for 45 out of 48 lectures, and it was well worth it.
Date published: 2019-02-26
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Comprehensive Professor Kloss does an excellent job at describing many of the European paintings in detail. I didn't give it 5 stars because there was only one lecture on 17th and 18th century Dutch Masters art, while there was more than enough on the pre-Renaissance and the Renaissance.
Date published: 2018-08-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Wonderful art survey with incisive commentary Dr. Kloss always thanks his audience for their attention at the end of every lecture; I would like to thank him many times over for his attention to this excellent course. A survey course like this is always captive to some extent to the tastes of the lecturer, but I think that Dr. Kloss is always honest about this. The clear expression of his own personal opinions make this course that much more valuable, in forming one's own opinions. The lecturing manner of Dr. Kloss is also one of the most refined and articulate of any video lecturer I have watched. Highly recommended to the beginner and advanced viewer alike.
Date published: 2018-07-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from So amazing I learned more than I ever imagined and the lecturer was so passionate m!
Date published: 2017-09-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Absolutely Outstanding. Rejuvenating for the Soul.
Date published: 2017-07-21
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Very comprehensive The course is comprehensive and clearly taught. Professor Kloss is brilliant but not the most exciting teacher I've ever had. I enjoyed his enthusiasm for things that it's hard to be enthusiastic about. One learns something with every lecture but, and I say this from the point of view of a 65 year old man whose attention span has been shrinking since 1974, it's tedious. I took art history in college, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, 1972, in a dark room with slides projected on the wall. It's a perfect set up for an involuntary nap and I took plenty of them. And after work in June of 2017, sitting in front of my computer, it's the same darn feeling. But I persevered and learned an awful lot.
Date published: 2017-06-24
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Each Episode is a Journey This is my second course by Professor Kloss. Each is well worth the experience. I am not an "art" person. Finally in retirement, I have the time and opportunity to cross over from liking to appreciating. Each lecture is like James Burke's Connections. You start of on a convoluted path which brings closure after 30 minutes with complete appreciation of both the art and Professor Kloss's style (which includes great neckties). Next purchase will be the lectures on American art by . . . Professor Kloss.
Date published: 2017-05-18
Rated 5 out of 5 by from wonderful! He is an inspiring lecturer, one of the best. As a former teacher, now retired, your do recognize a master when you see one. The lectures are beautifully delivered, his language rich and inspiring, he loves his discipline. I thought for a moment that this course might be superficial and, perhaps, early on, there was a tincture of this, but it got better and better, and better. In short, it was enthralling. He brings to these lectures, not just a deep knowledge of his subject, but a wonderful sense of the dramatic, and his intrinsic literariness adds further to the enjoyment of these lectures. They are that pleasing that I might watch two or three lectures, one after the other. I know a great teacher when I see one, and this bloke has it.
Date published: 2017-04-30
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A History of European Art I'm an art historian (PhD, University of Michigan). Chose this course on a whim, and I'm totally delighted with it.. Mr Kloss is a superb presenter, and I am enjoying his choice of examples to make his points--though I do not always agree! I particularly liked his discussion of Simone Martini's Annunciation--Simone is my very favorite artist--and by way of Mr Kloss' discussion, I saw a detail I had never noticed before. Looking forward to viewing more of his courses.
Date published: 2017-03-07
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Enlightening Class! The professor, William Kloss, is a pleasure to listen to and learn from. His passion for and knowledge of art history make this course a delight. I am an art major and have learned much from this teacher. My husband and I watched together and we both feel our future trips to art museums will be even more relevant to our lives after watching this course.
Date published: 2017-01-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from History of European Art I appreciate the opportunity ALL the courses present, but I am particularly interested in the offerings in the Fine Arts category. It allows anyone with a computer to visit the great museums of the world without leaving home. The presenters are professional and passionate about their specialty and I feel fortunate be able to learn about these paintings at such a small investment.
Date published: 2017-01-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Bayeux Tapestry to Guernica video download version This is the second course given by Professor Kloss that I have taken, this one perhaps more enjoyable than his "World's Greatest Paintings", no doubt because this is a history, rather than a grouping of selected paintings. As always, Professor Kloss is a thoughtful and measured presenter, though not to everyone's taste. Unlike a couple of other reviewers, I stand with the majority, as I find his style most engaging and sometimes (though low-key) humorous. For example I loved the juxtaposition of selecting two works by El Greco, one in Toledo and another in Toledo (Spain and Ohio), both given the proper accent. Even so and as a personal aside, I'm not a great fan of the mannerists, nor of El Greco. Any history must start and end somewhere and Professor Kloss begins with the Carolingians and ends with Picasso. One might wish for something earlier and for sure later, but it is very hard to argue with his choice of Picasso's "Guernica" to conclude his course. Especially when he bookends this painting with the equally grim and troubling (though perhaps not so sobering to modern eyes) "Bayeux Tapestry". In the spirit of full disclosure, a part of my five star ratings may be due to finishing this course just before a trip to Spain. While I have seen many of the paintings in this course in their home museums and on tours over the years, this is the first time I have had the opportunity to have considerable academic information about select works just before seeing them. Therefore my time spent in "Reina Sofia" and "The Prado" was greatly enhanced, examining works that he covered in some detail. I do however have one minor nit to pick. This course was done five years before he did the "Greatest Paintings" course. The second course includes many of the same paintings as this one. I would have liked a bit more diversity. To be fair and accurate, this comment should have been made in my review of "World's Greatest Paintings", but I don't think I can go back and edit that review. Highly Recommended.
Date published: 2016-12-03
Rated 5 out of 5 by from His Love of the Subject Will Rub Off On You As another reviewer said, Prof. Kloss is elegant and articulate -- but beyond that, very passionate. He's perfect for the subject matter, and there's no doubt he knows his stuff. A great survey, and delivered well. I do agree with at least one reviewer who said he could spend more time on analysis and less time on pointing out obvious features. I wanted a bit more of his knowledge.
Date published: 2016-11-19
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Beautiful and Informative I am not an art expert, nowhere near it. I am, however, interested in learning more about the greatest art created in European history, so this was a perfect course. Due to my very limited knowledge of art, I started with the Great Course's How to Look at Great Art. That course helped me get a lot more from this course than I would have otherwise. It is not essential to take How to Look at Great Art first, though, because this professor does an exceptional job of clearly and enthusiastically presenting the material. The professor shows a clear transition in styles and gives valuable historical background information where appropriate. This is a great starting place for someone looking for a basic introduction to European art history.
Date published: 2016-10-24
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Good Overview I watched these lectures because I don't know enough about art, and I want to learn more. Professor Kloss presents a good overview, and he points out important themes in the history of European art and important artists.
Date published: 2016-10-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A delight of visual and language arts There is something about this gentleman's elegant and articulate style that exemplifies what an extraordinary privilege I think it is to have access, courtesy of the Great Courses, to such a wealth of expertise covering so many fascinating subjects in such a generally excellent, affordable and convenient format. For me, this is (approximately) the 80th of their courses I've enjoyed, a journey impelled by my initial purchase of Prof Filippenko's astounding 96 lectures on Understanding the Universe, and subsequently leading me through almost 20 courses on music, 20 on Cosmology & Physics, 20 on Art, History and Travel, 10 on Literature & Philosophy, and 10 on Biology & Earth Sciences. I say this not to extol any personal virtues of curiosity, but merely to emphasize that I've been exposed to a great many GC lecturers, the vast majority of whom have been very good, and sometimes exceptional (one of my favorites is the adorably pompous - and I say that with complete affection - Prof Greenberg). It is a marvelous age to be a dilettante! While it is usually the topic itself that attracts me to a particular 'genre', a handful of presenters draw me back to everything else they might have offered (all my music courses are from Prof Greenberg). Prof Kloss is one of those people whose style I found charming, absorbing, insightful, sincere, respectful, occasionally passionate, and always informative - all the while presenting me with an all-too brief and (unfortunately but inevitably) content-limited overview of European Art. When, at the end of most of the lectures, he thanks me for my "kind attention", I believe he means it, and having given it to him wholeheartedly, I feel deeply rewarded.
Date published: 2016-09-26
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Tells you about what you see - not what it means I have purchased countless courses from the Teaching Company and love 99% of them. Unfortunately, this course is definitely an exception. As someone who is very interested in art but doesn't know a lot about it, I had very high hopes for this course. I have been to so many museums and have probably seen a good percentage of the paintings he includes in the course. However, this course failed in the same way that I find many visits to a museum unsatisfying. Professor Kloss spends most of the time DESCRIBING the painting - pointing out the little details, or the color of someone's dress. It is very rare that he EXPLAINS what those details mean, or why the dress is that color instead of another color. I can look at a painting all by myself - I doubt that I would miss any of those details if I decided to look carefully. I was expecting that an expert would lead me through the things I cannot see for myself. And that expectation was absolutely not met. I would say that the only thing I find this course good for is the opportunity to see up close (including a description from a person) a variety of paintings that an average person might not have a chance to see for themselves. But nothing more. Big disappointment.
Date published: 2016-08-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A charming course The European Art lectures were the 17th of The Great Courses I’ve taken since retiring a year and a half ago. Prof. Kloss is the best lecturer I’ve run into so far. It’s a long course, but I looked forward to every half hour with this learned, erudite, witty, urbane man. Good job recruiting this one!
Date published: 2016-08-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from This guy is a better lecturer than most of your titled professors. He really knows his stuff and really knows how to get it across to someone who wants to learn. Taken together his courses rank at the top of your chart.
Date published: 2016-07-11
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A History of European Art Professor Kloss's passion for his material is infectious. His sensitivity and intelligence shine. My argument with this purchase is simply that I downloaded it – and the quality of the images is seriously inferior to other art history courses from Great Courses that I have on DVD. This really matters in an art course, and I am very disappointed.
Date published: 2016-06-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent Overview My wife and I were planning a trip to Europe. Neither of us were particularly educated in the subject matter of this course. We'd never taken art history classes in our undergraduate studies. We both found these lectures to be informative and interesting. The lectures were very well presented and it's obvious Professor Kloss is well acquainted with the subject matter. I would recommend this course to anyone who plans to visit any of the Great Art Museums in Europe. Using this course as a guide we were able to develop an itinerary that permitted us to see the much of the Great Art addressed in this Great Course. And given what we learned we were better able to discern and comprehend the art which we ultimately saw in Italy and Spain. We also had the historical context of the art which was also provided during this course. Highly informative and very well presented.
Date published: 2016-05-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Complete Course about European Art This is my second course ministered by Professor William Kloss and I am absolutely satisfied. His soft but strong professional voice conduct us since the Carolingian Art till today. Professor Kloss has a serious and deep knowledge about this subject and each lesson is rich in objects, maps, figures and paintings. He begins with an historical introduction of the time and choose one or other artistic object to make his point. I can guarantee that everybody will be completely enriched by this course besides the agreeable company of Professor Kloss.
Date published: 2016-04-24
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A History of European Art
Course Trailer
Approaches to European Art
1: Approaches to European Art

Professor Kloss introduces the course and outlines its content. His goal is to encourage viewers to develop habits that will enhance their enjoyment of art. To appreciate a work of art, one must look at it patiently, considering qualities such as subject, interpretation, style, context, and emotion.

30 min
Carolingian and Ottonian Art
2: Carolingian and Ottonian Art

Beginning with the year A.D. 800, you study illuminated manuscripts produced by Irish monks. Then you compare an example of early Byzantine church architecture with Charlemagne's Palatine Chapel. The lecture closes with two masterpieces of narrative art, including the famous Bayeux Tapestry.

30 min
Romanesque Sculpture and Architecture
3: Romanesque Sculpture and Architecture

This lecture explores examples of the Romanesque style such as the churches of St. Etienne and St. Trophîme. You also examine various sculptures found in churches across France, and you close with a look at the role of the pilgrimage roads in the establishment of Romanesque-style churches throughout France.

31 min
Gothic Art in France
4: Gothic Art in France

After examining the evolution of the Gothic style, you look at such examples as Notre-Dame de Paris, Chartres Cathedral, Rouen Cathedral, and Saint-Maclou.

29 min
Gothic Art in Germany and Italy
5: Gothic Art in Germany and Italy

Continuing the study of Gothic art forms and styles, you look at a famous sculpture on the Strasbourg Cathedral, then move to Italy to examine relief carvings in Pisa, and compare three paintings by Cimabue, Duccio, and Giotto of the Madonna enthroned with the Christ Child.

29 min
Giotto and the Arena Chapel-Part I
6: Giotto and the Arena Chapel-Part I

Giotto's frescos for the Arena Chapel in Padua are one of the supreme achievements of Western European art. After discussing the history of the chapel and highlighting the methods of fresco, the lecture focuses on several scenes that depict the life of the Virgin and the life of Christ.

30 min
Giotto and the Arena Chapel-Part II
7: Giotto and the Arena Chapel-Part II

You return to the Arena Chapel to study scenes from the life of Christ, noting Giotto's powerful renditions of Christian themes. Before Giotto, most artists were anonymous craftsmen. With Giotto, a new phenomenon arose: From this point on, the history of art is also the history of great artists.

29 min
Duccio and the Maesta
8: Duccio and the Maesta

In this lecture, you focus on Duccio's unquestioned masterpiece, the Maestà, which means "majesty," viewing its different parts including the altar and scenes from the pinnacles and predella. You also see how Duccio and his contemporary, Giotto, compare in terms of reputation and technique....

31 min
Sienese Art in the 14th Century
9: Sienese Art in the 14th Century

You explore the historical influence of the Italian city-state. Then you learn about some of Duccio's successors: Simone Martini, Pietro Lorenzetti, and Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Finally, you examine the Palazzo Pubblico, a civic building in Siena and a significant monument of the Italian Gothic.

32 min
The Black Death and the International Style
10: The Black Death and the International Style

This lecture describes the effects on art of the bubonic plague of the mid-14th century by comparing the same subject from works before and after the plague. You then follow the rise of the International Gothic style, which laid the foundation for the Italian Renaissance of the 15th century.

31 min
Early Renaissance Sculpture in Florence
11: Early Renaissance Sculpture in Florence

Why did sculpture rather than painting lead to the development of the Renaissance style? You probe this question by looking at works by several great sculptors of the early 15th century, including Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, and Luca della Robbia.

30 min
Early Renaissance Architecture in Florence
12: Early Renaissance Architecture in Florence

You examine some spectacular and influential 15th-century architecture in Florence, focusing on buildings by Brunelleschi and Alberti. Looking closely, you can see how they solved major construction problems with new methods and inventions, which then changed the practice of architecture.

29 min
Masaccio and Early Renaissance Painting
13: Masaccio and Early Renaissance Painting

You continue your study of Renaissance art by looking at paintings influenced by Brunelleschi's linear perspective method. This lecture focuses on Masaccio, who applied the principles of perspective brilliantly in frescos for the Brancacci Chapel and Santa Maria Novella, both in Florence.

30 min
Jan van Eyck and Northern Renaissance Art
14: Jan van Eyck and Northern Renaissance Art

Turning to northern Europe, you focus on Jan van Eyck and his Arnolfini Wedding Portrait and Ghent Altarpiece. In addition, you note the major differences between the Italian Renaissance and Northern Renaissance....

30 min
Northern Renaissance Altarpieces
15: Northern Renaissance Altarpieces

Continuing the study of Northern Renaissance painting, you look at five altarpieces and one portrait by three artists: Robert Campin, Rogier van der Weyden, and Hugo van der Goes. You explore the symbolism and uncover various elements of Renaissance style and technique in these works.

29 min
Piero della Francesca in Arezzo
16: Piero della Francesca in Arezzo

You study two single works and a fresco cycle by a Renaissance painter whose fame did not become widespread until the 20th century, Piero della Francesca. You look at his The Baptism of Christ, the Resurrection, and the chapel with the Legend of the True Cross, exploring his geometrically defined style and his artistic influences....

30 min
Sandro Botticelli
17: Sandro Botticelli

With a lyrical style joined to innovative religious and allegorical subject matter, Botticelli is one of the best-known painters of the Renaissance. You explore the full span of his work, from the sensual rendition of Mars and Venus to interpretations of Christian themes such as the tragic Lamentation....

30 min
Andrea Mantegna and Giovanni Bellini
18: Andrea Mantegna and Giovanni Bellini

In this lecture, you focus on two artists in northern Italy, Mantegna and Bellini. Looking at Mantegna's famous frescoes in the Ducal Palace in Mantua, you can see the striking illusionism that influenced artists such as Bellini, whose work you compare and contrast with Mantegna's.

30 min
High Renaissance Painting in Venice
19: High Renaissance Painting in Venice

You continue to explore Venetian painting with Bellini, and then move on to his great pupils, Giorgione and Titian. First, you look at a portrait by Bellini and one of his altarpieces. Then you study Giorgione's Pastoral Concert and close with several works by Titian, including his vivid Bacchus and Ariadne....

31 min
The High Renaissance-Leonardo da Vinci
20: The High Renaissance-Leonardo da Vinci

The quintessential Renaissance man, Leonardo da Vinci was a universal genius in painting, sculpture, architecture, drawing, and the sciences of his day. After studying one of his drawings, you look at the influential innovations in three famous paintings: Madonna of the Rocks, Mona Lisa, and The Last Supper....

29 min
The High Renaissance-Raphael
21: The High Renaissance-Raphael

Renowned for his many graceful images of the Madonna and his amazingly lifelike portraits, Raphael's larger masterpieces were the frescoes decorating the papal apartments in the Vatican. You study the broad range of his work and the innovations he contributed to Renaissance painting.

30 min
The High Renaissance-Michelangelo
22: The High Renaissance-Michelangelo

In this lecture, you study the most famous works from the first half of Michelangelo's career: the Pietà, David, and the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Each displays a different element of his genius, and the stunning scope and brilliant execution of the Sistine Chapel ceiling made him the most influential artist in Europe....

30 min
Albrecht Durer and German Renaissance Art
23: Albrecht Durer and German Renaissance Art

Leaving the Renaissance behind, you explore two northern European artists. First, you look at an engraving by Martin Schongauer. Then you focus on Albrecht Dürer, examining his influences and his original blend of Renaissance and northern European artistic characteristics.

30 min
Riemenschneider and Grunewald
24: Riemenschneider and Grunewald

In this lecture, you explore the work of two more German artists. You look at Riemenschneider's Altarpiece of the Holy Blood and Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece, discovering the artists' contrasting styles and approaches to sacred subjects....

29 min
Netherlandish Art in the 16th Century
25: Netherlandish Art in the 16th Century

You look at four 16th-century artists from the Netherlands: Hieronymus Bosch, Joachim Patinir, Jan Gossaert, and Lucas van Leyden. You focus in particular on Bosch's famous triptych, Garden of Earthly Delights, which may have been commissioned for the private enjoyment of a nobleman....

30 min
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
26: Pieter Bruegel the Elder

You study the diverse and marvelous paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, which range from his imaginative depiction of the Fall of Icarus, to his vast landscape of Hunters in the Snow, to the political The Parable of the Blind Leading the Blind....

30 min
Mannerism and the Late Work of Michelangelo
27: Mannerism and the Late Work of Michelangelo

You explore Mannerism, which began in 16th-century Italy and spread throughout Europe. The lecture explains the characteristics of Mannerism and looks at representative artists, such as Jacopo Pontormo, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino, and Agnolo Bronzino. You also study the later work of Michelangelo.

30 min
Annibale Carracci and the Reform of Art
28: Annibale Carracci and the Reform of Art

This lecture discusses the reaction against Mannerism exemplified by Antonio Correggio and the Carracci family of Bologna. Correggio is noted for his illusionistic paintings. The Carracci family founded a teaching academy that influenced many artists. In particular, you look at Annibale Carracci's famous decoration of the Farnese Gallery.

31 min
29: Caravaggio

You focus on a single artist of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, Caravaggio. Briefly outlining his scandalous life, the lecture shows why critics are confounded by his sexual undertones and profound reverence for sacred subjects. He is also noted for his distinctive treatment of light and dark.

30 min
Italian Baroque Painting in Rome
30: Italian Baroque Painting in Rome

Annibale Carracci and Caravaggio, covered in the previous two lectures, formed a bridge from art of the 16th century to the 17th century. They are also considered founders of the 17th-century style called Baroque. You study artists who embraced this style, which exemplifies the artistic revival in Italy after the religious and political disruptions of the 16th century.

32 min
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
31: Gian Lorenzo Bernini

You look at Bernini, the single greatest artist in Rome during the Baroque period. Bernini was a painter, architect, and above all, a sculptor. You focus on his sculptures, including Apollo and Daphne, and marvel at his sweeping piazza in front of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome....

29 min
Peter Paul Rubens
32: Peter Paul Rubens

A renowned and astonishingly prolific artist, Peter Paul Rubens painted grand works for patrons in Italy, Flanders, Spain, France, and England. In this lecture, you look at several of the most important, including three huge altarpieces, his Marie de' Medici cycle, and a selection of self-portraits and landscapes....

30 min
Dutch Painting in the 17th Century
33: Dutch Painting in the 17th Century

In the northern Netherlands, painting flourished in the open marketplace, where artists specialized in various genres. You look at these specific genres and a group of representative artists: Frans Hals, Jan Steen, Pieter de Hooch, Jan van Goyen, Jacob van Ruisdael, and Johannes Vermeer.

31 min
34: Rembrandt

Among the most celebrated names in the history of art is Rembrandt, whose work touched on almost every aspect of human life. You examine his profound religious paintings and his famous portraits and self-portraits. You study the remarkable effects he achieved in the art of etching, in which he has never been surpassed.

30 min
Poussin and Claude-The Allure of Rome
35: Poussin and Claude-The Allure of Rome

Rembrandt was deeply influenced by the art of Rome from the High Renaissance. Although he never traveled to Italy, he clearly admired and borrowed from its artists. Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain, too, took inspiration from Rome, and both of these French artists spent most of their lives there.

30 min
Baroque Painting in Spain
36: Baroque Painting in Spain

In this lecture, you look at four painters living and working in Spain in the "golden age" of Spanish art during the late 16th and 17th centuries. You examine the expressive distortions of form of El Greco, the powerful light-dark contrasts of Francisco de Zurbaran, the affecting painting of Murillo, and the brilliant illusionism of Velazquez.

29 min
Louis XIV and Versailles
37: Louis XIV and Versailles

You tour the architecture and gardens of the palace at Versailles and learn how these elements reinforced Louis XIV's self image as the "Sun King." Then you study the work of Watteau to appreciate the pervading sense of nostalgia in the transition from the Baroque to the Rococo.

31 min
French Art in the 18th Century
38: French Art in the 18th Century

After Watteau, French art reflected the much-changed atmosphere of the court of Louis XV and the increasing importance of the middle class. You look at variations to be found within this century, including the supreme still lifes and restrained genre pictures of Chardin, the moral sentiment of Greuze, and the Rococo frivolity of Boucher and Fragonard.

30 min
Neoclassicism and the Birth of Romanticism
39: Neoclassicism and the Birth of Romanticism

Artistic tastes veered into a more severe mode in the late 1700s, and the resulting style was called Neoclassicism. You study examples by the greatest sculptor of the day, Jean-Antoine Houdon, and by the painters Jacques-Louis David and Francisco Goya, who made realistic, sometimes horrific images.

30 min
Romanticism in the 19th Century
40: Romanticism in the 19th Century

You now turn to Romanticism-an outlook that can be expressed in more than one artistic style. You examine several artists' "brands" of Romanticism, including those of Theodore Gericault, Eugène Delacroix, John Constable, and William Turner.

31 min
Realism-From Daumier to Courbet
41: Realism-From Daumier to Courbet

In this lecture, you look at three of Realism's practitioners: Honore Daumier, Jean François Millet, and Gustave Courbet. You see their unrelenting depictions of the changes then taking place in France and across Europe.

32 min
Manet and Monet-The Birth of Impressionism
42: Manet and Monet-The Birth of Impressionism

In this lecture, you look at two French artists: Manet, who has been seen as the wellspring of Modernism, and Monet, whose Impression: Sunrise gave the name to the new style. You examine elements in their paintings that point to a radical break with art of the past....

30 min
Monet and Degas
43: Monet and Degas

You continue your study of Monet with his sequence of paintings of Rouen Cathedral and his water-lily series. Then you follow the career of Edgar Degas, one of the great draftsmen of the 19th century, who depicted contemporary scenes of the circus, ballet, and cafe life.

31 min
Renoir, Pissarro, and Cezanne
44: Renoir, Pissarro, and Cezanne

You review the characteristics of Impressionism, with the caution that you must see what an artist actually does, rather than look for the acting out of a theory. Then you study the careers of Renoir, Pissarro, and Cezanne, examining in detail a few representative masterpieces.

30 min
Beyond Impressionism-From Seurat to Matisse
45: Beyond Impressionism-From Seurat to Matisse

The ambiguity of the term Impressionism applies even more to the style called Post-Impressionism, which is not strictly speaking "after" Impressionism. You look at the careers and works of three of these artists, Seurat, Gauguin, and Van Gogh, who paved the way for the revolutionary style of Matisse.

30 min
Cubism and Early Modern Painting
46: Cubism and Early Modern Painting

This lecture covers the innovations of Picasso, Braque, and Matisse in the first two decades of the 20th century. In a period that was rich in artistic exploration, these pioneers produced works that had immense influence on other artists.

32 min
Modern Sculpture-Rodin and Brancusi
47: Modern Sculpture-Rodin and Brancusi

Turning to modern sculpture, you focus primarily on the works of Rodin. A lifelong student of the art of Michelangelo, Rodin developed an expressive style that influenced his more radical and minimalist successors, such as Brancusi and Naum Gabo, who you also explore in this lecture.

32 min
Art between Two Wars-Kandinsky to Picasso
48: Art between Two Wars-Kandinsky to Picasso

You look at a series of works influenced by events of the 20th century between the two world wars, including such styles as German Expressionism, Futurism, Dada, and Surrealism.

31 min
William Kloss

Standards of beauty are seemingly endless and contradictory, which is why the rather hopeless phrase 'beauty is in the eye of the beholder' was coined.


Oberlin College


Independent Art Historian

About William Kloss

Professor William Kloss is an independent art historian and scholar who lectures and writes about a wide range of European and American art. He was educated at Oberlin College, where he earned a B.A. in English and an M.A. in Art History. He continued his postgraduate work on a teaching fellowship at the University of Michigan and was then awarded a Fulbright Fellowship for two years of study in Rome. As Assistant Professor of Art History at the University of Virginia, he taught 17th- and 18th-century European art and 19th-century French art. Professor Kloss has enjoyed a long association with the Smithsonian Institution, presenting more than 150 courses in the United States and abroad on subjects ranging from ancient Greek art to Impressionism to the works of Winslow Homer. He has also been a featured lecturer for the National Trust for Historic Preservation and for The Art Institute of Chicago. Professor Kloss serves on the Committee for the Preservation of the White House, a presidential appointment he has held since 1990. He is the author of several books, including Art in the White House: A Nation's Pride (2nd edition), which won the 2009 National Indie Excellence Award in the Art Category, as well as a 2009 USABookNews award for Best Book in Art. Most recently, he coauthored the United States Senate Catalogue of Fine Art. He also has written articles published in Winterthur Portfolio, The Magazine Antiques, American Arts Quarterly, and Antiques & Fine Art.

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