American Military History: From Colonials to Counterinsurgents

Rated 4 out of 5 by from Very good course Well worth the time. Almost gave it 5 stars but General Clark spent a little too much time on himself.
Date published: 2020-10-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Good basic course General Clark brings some very interesting insight to the class. The course provided a good history of our country's battles and leaders. Good course for anyone.
Date published: 2020-10-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Information-packed, well-edited, dynamic This is the best military history course I’ve seen. Gen. Wesley Clark (ret.) is an engaging teacher, dynamically covering lots of interesting information accompanied by spot-on photographs, film clips, maps and graphics. It’s very well edited and wastes no time. I wanted to be sitting in a West Point classroom watching this distinguished military academician. It’ll make you want to raise your hand and ask, “Sir, what about ______” to which I’m certain Gen. Clark would have a cogent answer that made you long for his next lecture.
Date published: 2020-08-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Good Course While I am sceptical about some of Gen. Clark's political ideas apart from the course, it didn't stop me from enjoying this course.
Date published: 2020-06-29
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Comprehensive Discussion Excellent discussion of the history of the American military - very interesting.
Date published: 2020-06-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great US MIliary History Insights For people with great interest in military history, this class is excellent. General Clark provides both historical context and a detailed analysis of the battles themselves. After General Clark's decades in the military, he could enhance the later lectures with personal experience.
Date published: 2020-06-22
Rated 2 out of 5 by from Title is misleading. Long on statistics and very short on troop movements down to the squad level. The later segments on Vietnam and beyond are self aggrandizement of General Clark. His back must hurt from all the pats he gave himself.
Date published: 2020-06-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from American military history from a great American. General Clark is a great teacher and this course provides a very broad overview of American military experience from the Revolutionary War up to Afghanistan. His personal experience from Vietnam through the Balkans provides important insights, but his knowledge of earlier military history provides equal value.
Date published: 2020-05-19
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Detailed discussion of America's wars Clark goes into great detail about the strategy and key battles of America's military conflicts. There is no question he is an absolute authority on this subject. The details of individual battles and troop movements may be more than some are interested in. The final chapter of the course (#24), where he discusses the future of warfare, should be mandatory viewing for all of our elected officials.
Date published: 2020-03-30
Rated 5 out of 5 by from To Whom We Owe So Much This course is an excellent survey of Americans at war. General Clark is certainly an apt and immensely qualified indivual to teach it. He offers us rich material in a clear, objective manner. Not knowing just what to expect, I've been pleasantly surprised and often inspired by his dignified and informative presentations. One cannot help but be moved by the grit, courage and resoluteness of our American fighters.
Date published: 2020-03-18
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Wow! I am glad I bought this. I never saw so much historical detail behind these military campaigns. I cannot wait to finish the course.
Date published: 2020-03-16
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Professional Soldier’s insight Wes Clark’s review brings our military history to life in a way that print cannot. The maps, his insight, and relevant historical data are informative and enjoyable.
Date published: 2020-03-10
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Inconsistent I was excited to here that Gen. Clark was giving the course and looked forward to taking it. He was inconsistent in his presentation, promoting his own experience over any actual results. If you followed his own complaints about the war in Iraq with the results of the war, his criticism of the government and his understanding of its flaws was at odds with the results he seems to have wanted. This was consistent with his presentation of the military in history. He has some criticism of American use of force but not enough to be skeptical of the result. For some reason he also shortchanges us on the length of lectures, always falling short while being very self-serving in his presentation. Very annoying!
Date published: 2020-02-24
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Very informative - great maps I have been reading military history for the last ten or so years, but there is always some area that takes a little closer look. This presents heavier on the military actions and actors, than the political but doesn’t entire neglect that. It wouldn’t be complete without the non-military pressures. The maps showing the action of each battle under discussion is very helpful in getting a visual of a sometimes constantly moving event.
Date published: 2020-02-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I oppose war and love this course - here's why: This course shows what war is really like, from the perspective of General Clark, and the larger view of history. The course includes audio and video of actual combat, dead soldiers, buildings being burned, and much more. General Clark is not the least bit afraid to expose the failures and mistakes of either side's military when appropriate, right down to naming names and criticizing policy at the highest level if he feels it is appropriate, up to Presidents of the United States. He discusses strategy, tactics, and examples from his own experience and those he knew personally, from Vietnam to the present day. Since I am opposed to war, I was very surprised to see this from a general. The biggest omission for me is the nearly complete absence of the United States in supporting and training militaries around the world. From the overthrow of democracy in Guatemala in the 1950s up to the present day, United States military and intelligence services have been used to train soldiers and military leaders of other nations to go to war that is supposed to be favorable to the United States, and this is an extremely important part of United States military history that is not covered in this course. I've met and supported survivors of some of these conflicts, the results are just as gruesome as you might imagine, and deserves a full hearing. General Clark said in a review posted that his goal with this course is: "I hope also that the course will inform public opinion, and help our leaders make the right decisions." I truly hope that goal is achieved. This course provides a perspective that is unique and highly personal. I don't agree with most of what the United States military has actually done in my lifetime, this course provides an insider's look into the world of military action by the United States, and why we must make diplomats and politicians do their job, as General Clark said. The history and stories of General Clark, as well as the video and audio, show why future generations must learn the lessons, and find solutions to conflict that don't require war. In my view this course shows why leaders need to pursue those solutions, and avoid the horrible costs of war. Thank you to General Clark and The Great Courses for publishing this very important course. It's up to citizens and leaders to heed the lessons.
Date published: 2020-01-25
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great course Excellent survey course by an American hero. Great use of media to supplement lectures.
Date published: 2019-09-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from SHOWS THAT HISTORY REPEATS I am retired U.S. Navy, and was in some of these actions. This course shows that history repeats itself, and that our government (civilian leaders, advisers, and experts) never learns from its past mistakes when deploying the military to solve a problem without giving the military a clear idea as to what the government thinks it whats done. This includes what they want done once the fighting stops because we are not there for nation building/rebuilding, police work, social stability, or to make people accept democracy. As usual, our leaders don't have a real clear picture of these "liberated people" as to what makes them the way they are and what drives their society, especially when it come to dealing with tribal and religious values. Looking back at the actions covered we see that some of our problems come from political and military rivalries, personal rivalries, and inter-service rivalries. We can also see that the government may have "the big picture" on an event, may want a decisive outcome on the event, but either do not give the military a clear picture of what they want, or are worrying about what the world body and media will think about their actions. This usually leads to the military being saddled with obscene "rules of engagement" that put real military people, not "boots on the ground", in danger. The best chapter in this course is Chapter 24 - Facing Wars Past and Future. Basically, if you want us to fight, let us fight; if you want us to win, tell us clearly what the goal is; and if you want nation building and social change, you need to understand what the man or woman in the street needs to rebuild their life. Nation building and social change are things the government needs to do, not the military. And finally, DIPLOMACY IS A MUST and the military show never be used just because its there and we got bored with talking.
Date published: 2019-09-08
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Unique and Interesting! More than a military scholar, General Clark has combat experience and working knowledge of military operations, which made this course so unique and so interesting. To see him as a normal faculty like many others in many universities seems to force him to lie in the Procrustean bed, which might be unfair to him. I wish Teaching Company could produce more courses like this one by a great figure outside of the regular academic world.
Date published: 2019-06-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Rally the flag General Clark presents military in a thorough fact based manner with detailed graphics and in depth dialogue.
Date published: 2019-06-13
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent and Compelling I am not a fan of military history but I felt I needed this course to complement my knowledge of American history. I am glad I selected it as General Clark does a great job of walking us through the nation's military conflicts and the political circumstances that led to them. Excellent video presentation and graphics.
Date published: 2019-05-28
Rated 2 out of 5 by from I was disappointed in the lack of analysis. It seemed to be a simple recitation of what took place without an explanation of tactics, reasons that made the battle successful or unsuccessful, what were the situational limitations that affected outcomes, etc., etc.
Date published: 2019-05-07
Rated 5 out of 5 by from This is a great overview of the topic. I hesitated to order this but am very glad that i did. It is a great overview of the topic without bogging down in details. Highly reccommend if you like US history, particularly military history. General Clark not only talks the talk, he has walked the walk. I was particularly glad to hear his comments on Gulf War 2. I have often thought that very little thought if any was given to the the peace. A great deal of thought on how to win. But what about later. We allowed the Iraqi infrastructure to fall a part. A very bad move time has shown. As far as other wars he gave a view in someplaces that i have never heard before. Educational indeed.
Date published: 2019-04-22
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Glosses over a lot of history. Instructor breezes through the subject matter and rarely delves deeply into the subject. You have a feeling he is in a hurry to finish each lesson without having to take the time to fully explore the subject matter. Kind of leaves you wanting more.
Date published: 2019-04-17
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Compelling history In his review of American conflicts, General Clark adds the perspective of someone who has been in combat and how the military thinks. It is more than a simple recitation of battles, though there was some of that in his discussion on the American Civil War. Overall, a very compelling lecture series which I very much enjoyed.
Date published: 2019-03-21
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Too much memoir This became General Clark's personal story rather than a history, as it was advertised. Especially #22, in which he pats himself on the back for the Kosovo campaign. Although hearing his take did add enjoyment, that's not what the course was supposed to be. He needs to practice speaking. The constant pauses and jerky speech got really tiresome.
Date published: 2019-03-09
Rated 2 out of 5 by from Disappointing I expected more from this course than the General delivered. His delivery is uninspiring and how can you discuss McClellan's Peninsula Campaign without reference to the month he wasted setting up a siege at Yorktown when it was his for the taking. Calling the USS Reuben James the Reuben Jones is unforgivable.
Date published: 2019-02-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Top general teaches military history Because it is taught by one of America's top retired generals, this is much more than just a standard military history course. Out of his vast experience in military command and personal experience of war, Wesley Clark not only provides a skillfully summarized history of the American military but also provides insights of the thought of the American command at the highest strategic and operational levels. The first part of the course, from pre-revolutionary times through the Korean War is a fine historical summary if a bit standard. But where the course really begins to shine is in the episodes from the Vietnam War onward, where Clark blends his personal career history with his strategic insights. Though I thought I was familiar with this more recent history, I found two of Clark's insights, in particular, to be startling. First, I had not known that from a military standpoint, the United States actually had won the Vietnam War in purely military terms by 1971. General Creighton Abrams had totally changed the strategy of the war when he took command in 1968. His predecessor, General Westmoreland, had focused on massive search and destroy missions in thinly populated areas. This strategy did not succeed, and left the South Vietnamese population unprotected from the insurgent Viet Cong. Abrams, in contrast, focused on defending populated areas. He changed the previous emphasis on body counts to one of rice production. The reason his strategy did not end in final victory was that the American people had become so disillusioned with the war in its previous, disastrous phase that they were not willing to pursue the conflict. Second, I learned of the bottom-up revolution in the American military that occurred as a result of the war games that took place during the 1980s at the National Training Center in the Mojave desert in California. No matter what they tried, the American forces consistently lost these war games until they learned that the key to victory was placing the initiative in the hands of enlisted troops rather than the officer corps. The officers still coordinated the action but it was the highly trained enlisted troops who were key to success. This insight was soon applied in Operation Desert Storm in Iraq in 1991. What I like about General Clark is that he fundamentally hates war though he believes it is sometimes necessary. War is not a sport, he says. He stresses at the end of the course that America should never again engage in a war of choice, but when American forces do fight, they must fight to win. Highly recommended.
Date published: 2019-02-25
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Superior course! I find this course to be a superior experience! Listening to General Clark, with his mastery of the subject, and the excellent visuals that pepper the entire presentation, makes this one of the top lecture courses available. I highly recommend it to those interested in the subject.
Date published: 2019-02-18
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Clear, concise and very interesting I enjoy listening to General Clark as he analyzed and describes everything from the tactics to the overall strategy and how he also ties things into the political enviroment.
Date published: 2019-02-07
Rated 3 out of 5 by from The Audiobiography of Wesley Clark I listened to this audio course while driving, as I have with scores of previous Teaching Company courses. This course, while indeed covering the lecture titles, didn't seem to have the typical details or anecdotes that stayed with me after finishing the course. As though too much went in one ear and out the other. It discussed battle after battle in chronological order, with quite a bit of the lecturer's opinions and biases thrown in, e.g., he didn't think much of George W. Bush. But Wesley Clark clearly loves him some generals, General Wesley Clark most of all. The lecture on Kosovo played out like the Story of Wesley Clark, down to and including his assertion that several babies there were named after him. This tidbit, inexplicably, was repeated in the course's final lecture. The last time I heard a speaker use the words "I," "me," and "my," this many times over a 30-minute span was in an Obama speech. If you didn't know that Clark once sought the Democrat nomination for the presidency, you'll hear all about that here. Just way too much biographical info that has no place in this course. That's what Track 1 of Lecture 1 is for. And hearing military medals described as being "won" rather than "awarded" (including the Medal of Honor) was very disappointing.
Date published: 2019-02-05
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American Military History: From Colonials to Counterinsurgents
Course Trailer
America: Forged in War
1: America: Forged in War

Gen. Clark begins the course by plunging you into combat with a 25-year-old Army captain in Vietnam in 1970. He was that captain. He then turns back the clock to one of the formative conflicts in American military history, the French and Indian War of the mid 1700s, focusing on the experiences of a young colonial officer fighting for the British: Lt. Col. George Washington.

30 min
George Washington Takes Command
2: George Washington Takes Command

The French and Indian War helped unite Britain’s North American colonies. When the colonies began their struggle for independence, they chose their greatest war hero, George Washington, to lead the army. Analyze Washington’s brilliant defense of Boston and his disastrous defeat trying to hold New York City. Contrast British and American objectives in the Revolutionary War.

29 min
Redcoats Fall to the Continental Army
3: Redcoats Fall to the Continental Army

Pick up the story of the American Revolution with Washington’s army in dire straits and his command in question. He revived his reputation with the famous crossing of the Delaware River to defeat the British at the Battle of Trenton. Follow the next four years of the revolution, which saw Britain’s strategic advantage deteriorate, ending with their surrender at Yorktown in 1781.

28 min
Andrew Jackson and the War of 1812
4: Andrew Jackson and the War of 1812

Historians still debate why the United States chose to fight Britain in the War of 1812, which lasted until 1815. Survey America’s grievances and ambitions, which included conquest of Canada. Study the poor strategy, command, and training that led to a strategic stalemate. The exception is the one military genius who emerged from the war: Andrew Jackson, the hero of the Battle of New Orleans.

28 min
The Mexican-American War of 1846–1848
5: The Mexican-American War of 1846–1848

The continental U.S. reached its present span due to the Mexican-American War, which also served as a proving ground for future commanders on both sides of the Civil War. Explore the superb strategy and tactics of generals Zachary Taylor (later elected president) and Winfield Scott. Both showed what disciplined and bold maneuvers conducted by a professional army could accomplish.

28 min
Opening Volleys of the Civil War: 1861–1862
6: Opening Volleys of the Civil War: 1861–1862

The Civil War set the pattern for warfare in the 20th and 21st centuries—in scale, consequences, and slaughter. Cover the political events leading up to the war, the strategy devised by the Union’s initial commanding general, Winfield Scott, the chaotic First Battle of Bull Run, and developments in the western theater, which saw the emergence of a remarkable leader, Ulysses S. Grant.

30 min
The Civil War’s Main Front: 1862
7: The Civil War’s Main Front: 1862

Trace the ebb and flow of battle in the eastern theater, as President Lincoln promoted and fired a succession of top commanders, including Gen. George McClellan. The South, too, faced instability in the top ranks, until Robert E. Lee emerged as the Rebel army’s preeminent leader, in concert with his chief lieutenant, Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson. Follow events through the bloody Battle of Antietam.

27 min
Vicksburg to Gettysburg: 1862–1863
8: Vicksburg to Gettysburg: 1862–1863

In the summer of 1863, the Civil War reached a climax on two fronts. Study the brilliant generalship of Grant in isolating and defeating the Confederate force defending the Mississippi River fortress of Vicksburg, cutting the South in two. Then dissect Gen. George Meade’s tactics that halted Lee’s daring invasion of the North in a three-day battle in and around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

29 min
Chattanooga to Appomattox: 1863–1865
9: Chattanooga to Appomattox: 1863–1865

Gen. Clark narrates the dramatic endgame of the Civil War, in which Gen. William T. Sherman outmaneuvered Confederate forces in the west to take Atlanta, then marched to the sea; while Grant fought Lee across a broad swath of Virginia, finally cornering him at Appomattox, where Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865. Review the murderous toll of this, the world’s first modern war.

29 min
The Spanish-American War of 1898
10: The Spanish-American War of 1898

A generation after the Civil War, America fought a major war with Spain over its misrule of Spanish colonies, including Cuba and the Philippines. Investigate such famous battles as the naval action at Manila Bay and the Rough Riders’ assault up San Juan Heights. Also look at the insurgency that frustrated American peace efforts—a problem that resurfaced years later in Vietnam and the Middle East.

29 min
American Expeditionary Forces: 1917–1918
11: American Expeditionary Forces: 1917–1918

Survey World War I, which drastically upped the material and human cost of war. Study the causes of the conflict, the rival alliances, and the failure of Germany’s opening gambit, leading to ruinous trench warfare. Then trace America’s belated entry into the war and its unprecedented mobilization. Learn how Gen. John J. Pershing was chosen to command the American Expeditionary Force.

27 min
John J. Pershing, the Doughboys, and France
12: John J. Pershing, the Doughboys, and France

America joined the fight against Germany at the height of the enemy’s last make-or-break offensive. U.S. commanders faced a steep learning curve, initially using tactics that were unsuited to the new style of mechanized warfare. Discover the hard-won lessons that allowed the Yanks—affectionately known as doughboys—to break the stalemate, driving Germany to accept an armistice on November 11, 1918.

27 min
From Pearl Harbor to the Battle of Midway
13: From Pearl Harbor to the Battle of Midway

Two decades after World War I, Germany was ready to fight again, supported by Japan and Italy. Focus on America’s preparations for war and its reaction to Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in late 1941, followed by Germany’s declaration of war against the U.S. See how the U.S. Navy halted Japanese expansion in the Pacific, fighting crucial battles in the Coral Sea and off Midway Island.

29 min
War in North Africa and the South Pacific
14: War in North Africa and the South Pacific

Consider U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt’s strategic dilemma in simultaneously fighting Germany and Japan. Weigh the competing views of Army Chief of Staff George Marshall and Chief of Naval Operations Ernest King, along with the views of Allied leaders Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin. Learn why the North Africa campaign was so vital, and spotlight continuing actions in the South Pacific.

30 min
Air Power over Germany; Toward Japan by Sea
15: Air Power over Germany; Toward Japan by Sea

Air power achieved strategic importance in World War II. Compare American and British bombing strategies against Germany. Also follow the Allied land offensive from North Africa to Sicily to the Italian peninsula. Then cover America’s island-hopping campaign in the Pacific and the momentous Battle of the Philippine Sea, which defeated Japan’s attempted naval comeback, crippling its carrier force.

29 min
From Normandy to Berlin and Tokyo
16: From Normandy to Berlin and Tokyo

Go ashore on D-Day with the largest amphibious operation in history, tracking the Allied invasion through its breakout from the beachhead and reversals such as the Battle of the Bulge. After Germany’s surrender in May 1945, follow Pacific troops to the brink of a planned invasion of Japan. Then examine the B-29 bombing campaign, which culminated in the dropping of two atomic bombs, ending the war.

29 min
Korea and the Cold War
17: Korea and the Cold War

The U.S. emerged from World War II as the most powerful nation on Earth. That status was challenged by the Soviet Union, which pushed the spread of its communist ideology. The two rival systems clashed in Korea in a war that was vicious and inconclusive. Focus on America’s part in this opening shot of the Cold War and the controversial role of the U.S. commander in Korea, Douglas MacArthur.

30 min
The United States Enters Vietnam
18: The United States Enters Vietnam

Gen. Clark introduces the war that was his own baptism of fire, Vietnam, where he served as a young officer after graduating from West Point. In this lecture, he covers the background of the war, charting how America was drawn deeper and deeper into the conflict, and discusses Gen. William Westmoreland’s initial American strategy, which proved ineffective for dealing with an insurgency.

30 min
Elusive Victory in Southeast Asia
19: Elusive Victory in Southeast Asia

Get a behind-the-scenes look at the new approach to winning the war in Vietnam, instituted after Gen. Creighton Abrams took over in 1968. This was the war fought by your lecturer during his tour of duty. Gen. Clark describes in vivid detail the firefight that abruptly ended that tour, and he gives a sober evaluation of how the disastrous end of the war might have been averted....

29 min
American Forces in Grenada and Panama
20: American Forces in Grenada and Panama

Explore the American military’s struggle to overcome the loss of confidence known as “Vietnam syndrome,” which was especially worrisome due to the Soviet military buildup at the time. Highlight two operations that demonstrated renewed vitality: the U.S. invasion of the Caribbean island of Grenada in 1983 and Panama in 1989–1990. Both restored democratic rule amid worsening political turmoil.

29 min
Knocking Iraq Out of Kuwait
21: Knocking Iraq Out of Kuwait

Continue your study of America’s rebuild of its war-fighting capability in the 1980s. Then see how this expertise was put to use in 1991 to eject Iraq from Kuwait, which it had invaded the previous year. With Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf in command, U.S. and coalition forces executed a classic envelopment of the Iraqi army, in the process fighting the largest armored engagement in military history.

30 min
Balkan Wars: Bosnia and Kosovo
22: Balkan Wars: Bosnia and Kosovo

Now hear directly from the commander of a major military operation. Gen. Clark himself was head of NATO forces during the Kosovo War of 1998–1999, directing a 78-day bombing offensive that defeated an attempted Yugoslav takeover of newly independent Kosovo. In a conflict rife with ethnic and international tensions, Gen. Clark applied strategic lessons you’ve learned in the course.

29 min
Afghanistan, Iraq, and Terrorism
23: Afghanistan, Iraq, and Terrorism

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 sparked a U.S. military response like no other, combining overwhelming air power against the terrorist regime in Afghanistan, along with special forces and allied units on the ground. Also chart the 2003 invasion of Iraq, another success in regime change. Unfortunately, initial victory in both cases evolved into a no-win struggle with insurgents.

29 min
Facing Wars Past and Future
24: Facing Wars Past and Future

Probe why U.S. troops faced endless low-level warfare in Afghanistan and Iraq. For perspective, review the lessons of American military history, from the young nation’s own guerilla movement during the Revolution to today’s era of push-button war. Then look ahead at America’s challenge for staying preeminent in military technology. Gen. Clark closes with lessons from his lifetime of service.

32 min
Wesley K. Clark

Perhaps no field of human endeavor sparks so much creativity as warfare.


Oxford University


United States Military Academy, West Point

About Wesley K. Clark

Wesley K. Clark rose to the rank of four-star general during 38 years of military service. He graduated first in his class at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and was selected as a Rhodes Scholar to study at Oxford University, where he earned his M.A. in Economics.


As a young officer in Vietnam, Gen. Clark commanded an infantry company and suffered severe wounds in combat. He later commanded at the battalion, brigade, and division levels, including the famed 1st Cavalry Division. He was also Director for Strategic Plans and Policy on the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Washington, working with U.S. diplomat Richard Holbrooke to negotiate an end to the conflict in Bosnia.


Gen. Clark’s military career culminated as NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe, during which he led combined forces to victory in Operation Allied Force, protecting Kosovo Albanians from ethnic cleansing. His awards include the Presidential Medal of Freedom, Defense Distinguished Service Medal (five times), U.S. Army Distinguished Service Medal (twice), Silver Star, Bronze Star (twice), and Purple Heart.


Since retiring from the Army, Gen. Clark has authored four books, including Winning Modern Wars, Waging Modern War, and A Time to Lead. He ran for U.S. President in the 2004 Democratic primary campaign, winning the Oklahoma primary before withdrawing.

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