Impossible: Physics Beyond the Edge

Rated 5 out of 5 by from mysteries of modern physics:time I was asked to rate this before I had finished purviewing it in it's entirety( halfway thru) and I gave it a poor rating because it started at too low a level for me. However, now that I have completed the course I would recant that review and say that it presented me with the anticipated continuance of information discussion that I wanted. It was very good in aggregate.
Date published: 2018-06-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Informative and entertaining Ben Schumacher is my favorite Great Course lecturer. I think I have every course he has done for The Great Courses.
Date published: 2018-06-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Pleasantly surprised by how much I learned When I saw the title of this course and reviewed the contents I hesitated to buy it because I thought it would just rehash previously covered material and I wouldn't learn anything new. However I got it because I've done all of Ben Schumacher's courses and he is by far the best teacher I have found here. His conversational style with pauses and questions and measured pace is a delight to listen to. It's like you are there in the room with him. He clearly summarizes what he has covered so you don't lose track of where you are and ties different lectures together to present a comprehensive picture of the whole course. I hope he does some more courses. The course did cover some material I was somewhat familiar with but also clarified several things - symmetry, entanglement, uncertainty, quantum tunnelling, information cloning. I found chapter 22 on electromagnetism and Maxwell's equations confusing and will have to review it. Other than yet, very clear and enjoyable. Highly recommend.
Date published: 2018-03-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Interesting material well presented I am currently about half way through this lecture series , the professor is very entertaining without resorting to gimmicks. The course material ties together many of the subjects that I have viewed on other "Great Courses" presentation.
Date published: 2018-01-02
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Just plain fun! This course is just plain fun. There are three topics within physics that really bend my brain: entropy, relativity, and quantum physics. Professor Schumacher gives a quick, fresh view of all three, and more. For anyone wondering if the sweep of physics courses within "The Great Courses" is worth your time, start here. Personally, I have devoured so many of the physics courses that I tend to be satisfied with a simple new insight from new courses. I found this course fun and exciting, end-to-end. I should have expected nothing less from Professor Schumacher. He is one of the best. The professor's take on entropy as information is unique within the Great Courses and, for those seeking to grasp the concept, it is a view you need to take in. Here you get a brief introduction. For in-depth coverage, "The Science of Information" is absolutely enlightening. As for my other mind-benders, relativity and quantum physics, the professor has courses that cover them in much more depth as well.
Date published: 2017-10-11
Rated 4 out of 5 by from An original approach explaining fundamental laws Prof Schumacher systematically examines and uses the impossible as a tool for examining the fundamental ideas in physics. This is a very original approach and is a welcome addition to the standard exposition of the laws of physics themselves as it provides an overall context around these laws, how they fit together in the whole picture. In short, making sense of overall picture of physics ruling the universe. No college-level calculus is used in this course. So, this is no entry barrier for people not familiar with calculus. And you will not find equations in this course either (except in extremely simplified form in Lecture 22 using common geometry). The course’s chief requirement: dedication – a must to obtain the full benefits of this course as it is far more substantial than the standard National Geographic science channel productions. Prof. Schumacher clearly explains fundamental concepts ruling the physical world, what truly is fundamentally impossible, as opposed to what was considered impossible because of technical limitations but turned out to be possible when technological advances removed the barrier. Staring from lecture 5, I needed more than the 30-minute runtime of the lectures as I paused to take my own notes. Right off the bat, I still must rate this course in comparison with the monumental works of Prof. Wolfson’s Physics in our Universe, Prof. Grossman’s Thermodynamics and Prof. Devaney’s Mastering Differential Equations. These three alone has set the bar as the golden standard against which all other science and math courses must be compared. Tough to be an ace in a roomful of stars. Hence my 4-star rating, for no specific faults with this course. Lectures 1 and 2 are of casual/easy viewing grade. At most, take a few lines of notes regarding the various types of impossibility (absolute, derived and statistical) because you will see this material again and again. Lecture 3 brings forth kinetic, potential and heat energy forms, along with the concept of total mechanical energy and work, outlining the impossibility of perpetual motion machines producing useful work without requiring energy. A good primer for an audience having a very low understanding of these concepts. Lecture 4 explains beta-decay. I found it interesting because it went beyond mere electron emission and it is completed with the historical background, key contributors and began over an absolute faith in the energy conservation principle. Lecture 5 shines by providing a clear explanation of the elusive concept of entropy. And its implication on time flow. Lecture 6 brings up the role of information in basic laws of physics. The laws governing information in the universe are part of the most fundamental laws of physics. Prof Schumacher explains that entropy is tied to lack of exact information about a system. Lecture 8 introduces the concept of chaos. No, weather forecasts beyond two weeks are not possible. Lecture 10 explores the basic concepts of Einstein relativity. I took more notes in this lecture. Note taking become more substantial in Lectures 11 and 12 dealing with space-time and black holes. Here the language seems strange, unfamiliar. This is where a new language has to be learned, replaying short sections to absorb the language. Completing these lectures will take more time than their 30-minute runtime. Lecture 13 dealing with time travel is more abstract and at time seems more speculative, sometimes even philosophical. At times taxing my dedication – I was glad to reach the end of it. The next lectures do not build upon this one so you could skip it without finding yourself at a loss in the following lectures. Lecture 14 introduces symmetry and discusses Emmy Noether’s spectacular theorem linking symmetries and conservation laws. I was impressed with the enthusiasm of the lecturer who makes it a point to convey this theorem as a fundamental insight. I was eagerly working my way up to this lecture and I was not disappointed. Except I would have liked more, sort of finding extra time by taking it away from lecture 16, which is essentially of casual viewing grade. Lecture 19 gets more serious again and provides a good explanation of the scanning tunneling microscope and a short exposition of the edge of current knowledge on black holes. In Lecture 22, at long last the concept of “field” used often times before is finally explained. The simplified description of Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism is noteworthy and a welcomed part of the course. They are interesting in and of themselves, even though it takes the entire lecture to get to the main point of how electromagnetism laws are enforced by nature as the author examines the theoretical case of a special region in space where the laws would be suspended for a limited period of time. The main point is how these laws are enforced in the universe. That lecture is well worth using the pause and rewind buttons. On the slightly negative side, Lecture 9 deals with the impossibility of time travel. It waxes into philosophy at times, with notions of irresistible fate. This lecture could benefit from a more substantial rewrite. Similarly, a large part of Lecture 16 could have been used to extend coverage of more interesting material. Owing to the quality of all of the other lectures, I’ll let it slide. Lecture 22 in particular more than makes up to these two.
Date published: 2017-07-16
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Very interesting The passion the lecturer has for this topic definitely comes through right from the start. As I right this review I have only listened to the lectures and I found some of the material beyond me, however with visual cues it may be more clear. Having said that, I did enjoy the course and gained, what I would consider, relevant information.
Date published: 2017-07-03
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Diffecult concepts made easy I bought this course almost a month ago. I leapfrogged through the items of the course. On one hand, the lecturer is not only very passionate in his drive to make plain the difficult concepts of the course, but he indeed succeeded to do so more than any lecturer I have listened to thus far. On the other hand, I regret to say that his subjects, or the chosen angles he treated his subject from, were not of much interest to me. Thus I stopped half way.
Date published: 2017-05-06
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Dis-ceivingly simple I have been slowly listening to this coarse while exercising. The title gives you the impression it is about impossible things in physics, but it is really a very good basic coarse in the laws of physics, especially thermodynamics. It is one of the best understandable explanations I've seen.
Date published: 2017-04-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Can a physics course make you laugh? Can a man who brought the term “qubit” and “Shumacher quantum data compression” into scientific parlance come across as personable and even fun? This Great Courses professor does it by being perfectly at ease with advanced Physics students (“My students certainly think the math is difficult”) as well as physics “newbies”. I laughed frequently during this course because the clarity of explanations provided many “Aha” moments. The most important topics include perpetual motion machines, what absolute zero entails, symmetry, quantum cloning & tunneling, conservation of energy and charge, time travel, FTL, the uncertainty principle, and most importantly whether one can predict the future of a chaotic system. Additionally, Shumaker seamlessly brings the accomplishments of the giants of physics into play at just the right moment within his 12 hours of lectures. He covers enough of them to require a 20-page addendum of Biographical Notes. What you should know about this course: 1. You don’t have to prior physics training though a decent high school course will help you get more out of your first run through, 2. Basic algebra (vectors, some math notation) is helpful, 3. Buying the course book might be to your advantage for this particular course, and 4.) This course has immediate value, replay value and academic referral value. The principles taught here are vital to conversation about modern topics ranging from climate change to Common Core. We need more people who “know the limitations” in charge of our media and education systems. Shumacher could teach anyone.
Date published: 2016-12-18
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Plausible, Possible, Probable given Laws of Nature This course taught me to see symmetry in new ways based on the fundemantal laws of nature; what it takes to develop problem solving value; and inclusion of abstraction into the scope of our testing. I enjoyed Dr. Shumacher's description of the three approaches of think in lecture 1....that there is a need to include three abstract "personified" perspectives....absolute (Euclid), theory (Newton), and statistics (Maxwell) that require use of the impossible, implausible, and improbable approaches to solve paradoxical observations or mathematical breakthroughs...aka theoretical physics and proof. Also, it was great to see the square cubed law used - post humously, as an intermediate step before taking on the challenges of moving from thermodynamics to quantum mechanics, etc. Personally, I am greatful that many great physicists were able to use the Impossible / improbable to break through institutional barriers to discover new deminsions of reality that do not violate Natural Laws but are very difficult to understand without visualization tools... Just try to do this to explain the Higgs Boson / Higgs Field to move from partical physics to explaining gravity which moves gravity from the weakest of the 4 known forces to the most powerful. That is, it explains dark matter / energy - 75% of of our universe and why its expansion is approximately the speed of light. Those interested should venture to view the course on Dark Matter / Engergy and then the Higgs Boson course. A triumph over what was impossible....
Date published: 2016-11-11
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent!!! Prof. Schumacher delivers an superb presentation that is both nuanced for the avid learner & simple for the casual observer. He is one of the Top 5 favorite Great Course instructors in my house. Can't recommend this course (& his other courses) enough!
Date published: 2016-07-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from To Infinity and Beyond Impossible or Possible? Discussing scientific principles from this vantage point is extremely entertaining. The professor's clear presentation style and obvious enthusiasm for the material kept my attention throughout. Some of the ideas once thought to be impossible only to be proven possible give me hope that warp drives really will be invented someday. One can only dream. After all, science is an adventure in understanding and the course demonstrates that there are still a lot of puzzles to be solved and knowledge to be gained "where no has gone before."
Date published: 2016-01-21
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Valuable course Dr. Schumacher provides an enjoyable lecture series dealing with the laws of physics and how they apply to the physical world. I found the course both entertaining and insightful both as a review of the laws of physics and for me new material on how Newtonian physic and quantum physic are related. What I particularly liked was a discussion of "physics without numbers", that is, explanations of the laws of physics without solving equations. To me this was a preferable approach because I could focus on the concepts without getting lost in the calculus. .
Date published: 2015-10-13
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Must for Non-Physicists & for Sci-Fi Fans Professor Schumacher does a wonderful job of explaining the impossibilities of physics in terms and examples that can be easily understood by non-physicists. For example, Professor Schumacher explains why we cannot travel faster than light and why we cannot travel back in time. (Sorry fellow Sci-Fi fans.) I am a Sci-Fi fan and it is obvious that Professor Schumacher is also a lover of Sci-Fi. To explain or demonstrate his points, Professor Schumacher makes references to some of the classic Sci-Fi such as H. G. Wells “The Time Machine”, Star Trek, the 1950’s move “Them!” with giant ants, “Back to the Future”, “Forbidden Planet”, and so on. Professor Schumacher also explains how the 3 laws of science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke. Professor Schumacher’s favorite is the third law and I like that law too but I have to admit that my favorite is the first line which I have seen for many occurrences of this law. Another indication of how much Professor Schumacher enjoys science fiction and the world of physics is given in lecture nine when the telegraph paradox is explained. His example message in the telegraph paradox of “42 is the answer” is a subtle reference to Douglas Adams’ “The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy”. Consequently, this course is both informative and entertaining and I highly recommend it.
Date published: 2015-08-09
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A lot of fun for the scientifically curious mind. Really enjoyed walking on new paths and viewing from new angles. Highly recommend for those who love science.
Date published: 2015-03-16
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent Review Of Physics This course provides a breadth of information as viewed from the 'impossible' reference point. Dr. Schumacher presents a wide collection of seemingly impossible concepts in order to teach the fundamental physics behind their existence or, just as importantly, why they are currently considered as physically impossible --time travel, perpetual motion, faster than light travel--. Dr. Schumacher is enthusiastic and well versed in the subject matter. He is easy to watch/listen to and his lectures are thought provoking. I highly recommend this course to anyone with a curiosity about the physical world in which they live. Other than quick reference to formulas as examples, the course does not delve into any of the math behind the physics so is appropriate for any level.
Date published: 2014-12-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent presentation, inspiring content. Excellent presentation, easy to understand, Inspires people of all ages to think critically. Should be taught in high school students all over the world. Highly recommend.
Date published: 2014-12-03
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Poor website I was unable to view this course as a download/ There were frequent 1 minute pauses in the video - and the download link did not save the video to my pc..No online help is available to deal with these issues. On the whole i have wasted $35 and will not return to this website. I suggest you tube - which is free instead of this poor website.
Date published: 2014-09-28
Rated 4 out of 5 by from impossible science student I was able to follow the lectures at some level but not lecture 22 about the conservation of electric charge. The professor lost me in that one. The lecture could have been made more idiot-proof, even if it took two lectures to make it clear to a person with absolute zero scientific aptitude like me. I did gain insights into the subject from the course though.
Date published: 2014-02-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from He gets better ever year Great presentation skills. Easy to understand. Good material and subject follows well from chapter to chapter. Have both of his courses and they complement each other. Still do not believe that there are particles, only wave to wave contact (at wave peaks) that causes what we view as particles.... "whitecaps" .
Date published: 2013-11-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Impossoble Physics Using science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke's 3 Laws of Future Science, Professor Schumacher takes the viewer on a tour of the current state of physics, and explains why certain things are, and why others are not. Along the way he blows up some tall castles in the air concerning, among other things, faster than light speed, teleportation, time travel to the past, and perpetual motion. Let's just say if you're a fan of the Star Trek television series or Star Wars movies, you'll find out why you shouldn't take what you've seen and enjoyed too seriously. A lot of what is in those shows is, well, impossible. Scotty won't be beaming you anywhere, anytime soon. Like many courses in the Great Courses science series, the work assumes the viewer has at least a passing familiarity with some of the topics. Dr. Schumacher is engaging and enthusiastic. He better be because some of the course material is pretty droll. That said, this is my last physics course from the Great Courses. I've taken 7 or 8 courses presented by a variety of physicists and until something truly new and astonishing is discovered and presented, I'm done.
Date published: 2013-11-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Entertaining This course on "Impossible" physics made for delightful late night entertainment this summer. Professor Schumacher took the difficulty of tricky physics and made it pure fun. He really appeared to be enjoying himself as he taught this course which made it enjoyable for me. The laws of thermodynamics are much better understood having watched "Impossible", however I still find myself unable to wrap my mind around quantum entanglement. I would highly recommend purchasing this course.
Date published: 2013-10-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Better than expected! I had been avoiding this class because I incorrectly thought it was something like Michio Kaku's book by a similar title. Michio speculates too much for my taste. Instead, this class took a really interesting approach to physics, and I'm finding it helpful and fascinating. The professor covers some common ground in physics, which is helpful, and even better he approaches it with the unique angle of physics that is impossible, or physics that we may just think is impossible, but all is based on what we know about the laws of physics. If you want to understand physics better, or enjoying classes on physics, I recommend this course. The professor explains everything well.
Date published: 2013-08-21
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Very good class In the first few lectures, which cover relatively prosaic concepts, Prof. Schumacher's slightly showman-like style might be off-putting, but as the material gets more advanced, one sees that the twinkle in Shumacher's eye just reflects his enjoyment of the subject. The material is very interesting, and his presentation is thorough, well structured, and intelligible.
Date published: 2012-08-23
Rated 4 out of 5 by from A Nicely Done "Modern Physics for Poets" This is a very good course to take if you have an interest in a description of the most important discoveries of modern physics, but have no use for the mathematics involved, and little concern with understanding the underlying principles. The course title, as is probably obvious, is primarily a hook to get you interested. The course is a basic survey of modern physics. For any with a deeper interest, however, it may well disappoint. (This is in marked contrast with Prof. Schumacher's outstanding "Quantum Mechanics" course, which provides a wonderful and far deeper learning experience with no more than high school math.) All of the highlights are covered, from black holes to time travel to relativity to quantum mechanics, as well as crucially important but somewhat less hyped areas such as absolute zero, chaos, conservation laws, and symmetry. But "description" is the operative word here. We are told in admirably clear (and mostly math-less) words what modern science has discovered, but with very little substantive indication of how scientists got there, or of what the underlying principles actually consist. It is as if we were presented with a map which shows all of the important mountain peaks, but with no information about the territory which connects them, and which makes ascending them possible. And Prof. Schumacher, who is an excellent speaker, with a friendly and informal, yet organized and clear lecture style, often speaks as if he has demonstrated a causal or logical connection when he has simply added one description to another. So - yes, I do highly recommend this course to any desiring a once-over-lightly introduction to modern physics. Nothing wrong with that. Many other excellent Great Courses, including Prof. Schumacher's, offer greater depth, and are well worth the extra time and effort needed to appreciate them.
Date published: 2012-08-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from An Interesting Presentation of Science and History This course described a series of scientifically impossible challenges and described scientists' attempts to overcome the challenge. It was a nice blend of science and history. Prof. Schumacher did a nice job of selecting his stories. He proved to be an able story teller. His lectures were clear and organized. I appreciated his course guide and bibliography. I particularly enjoyed the historical coverage of the attempts made during the scientific revolution such as the perpetual motion machine and the first refrigerators. (I always find it interesting that a first-year student of physics can now know more than the most educated people knew a few hundred years ago.) I would caution students about listening to this course and Prof. Schumacher's course on quantum mechanics back-to-back. I did that, and I regard that as a mistake as the last six or seven lectures seemed to be considerably repetitious as much of the material overlaps. This course would be enjoyed by students who wish to know more about the history and science behind these impossible challenges. Thank you for this Great Course.
Date published: 2012-05-01
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Impossibly dull at times I have mixed feelings about this course. Many of the lectures, particularly in the beginning, were fascinating. Once the professor hit his own field of study, quantum mechanics, the course took an awful dip. It seemed as though there might have been 3-4 fewer lectures on this subject. Ultimately, I grew distracted and bored. Not the best offering from TGC, but certainly not the worst.
Date published: 2012-04-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Draws you in My 9th grade son loved the Physics In Your Life series & wanted more to go along with his "conceptual physics" or "physical science" year. This course was recommended by other homeschoolers, although I was a bit worried that Physics Beyond the Edge would be too big of a step up. It's a different professor, he goes quickly, and the topics are a little more challenging and maybe not things he had considered yet (perpetual motion & absolute zero, rather than how a CD works and how a microwave works in the other course). However, the professor quickly brought both of us up to speed and into the conversation. We didn't understand every topic completely, but we got a good intro and we have the DVDs to revisit in the future. My only criticism is that the professor seems to have the thesis that the impossible is possible, but occasionally he seems to say "except this particular thing - this is never going to be possible." I think the prof should have spent more time explaining that contradiction rather than expecting us to take it at pretty much face value; it is,after all, the whole topic of the series. But it's an excellent series, it drew us into real science, and I would buy it again.
Date published: 2012-02-19
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Not as strong as it sounds It's been decades since I studied any kind of physics, and the topics of these lectures seemed like a fun way to rediscover it; the rave reviews here also made it an enticing buy. This is the first course I've bought that was a real disappointment. It wasn't bad, per se, but it just did not live up to its potential. The first half of the course is the most fun, looking at perpetual motion machines, time travel, and giant insects. The latter half of the course is a fairly deep exploration of quantum physics. To be honest, I felt the course was a bit overweight in this area; the lecturer could have either reduce the overall course length to 12-18 lectures, or included more about electromagnetism of other topics that are less esoteric. I enjoyed Dr. Schumacher's lecturing style. He's engaging and enthusiastic. However, the DVD format is horrendously under-utilized. There were far fewer visual aids/animations than I would expect from a video-only course (contrast to, say, Dr. Ressler's Structures course), in particular to help explain some of the more difficult concepts. Truth be told, I wouldn't recommend this course. Casual viewers will probably be turned off after the first half, and people with strong science backgrounds will likely find the material lacking something.
Date published: 2012-01-22
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Impossible: Physics Beyond the Edge
Course Trailer
From Principles to Paradoxes and Back Again
1: From Principles to Paradoxes and Back Again

Prepare to explore the thrilling frontier that separates the possible from the impossible by first looking at what scientists mean by these two terms, and how the boundaries can shift. Professor Schumacher notes that by pondering the impossible, scientists gain amazing insights into the nature of physical laws....

31 min
Almost Impossible
2: Almost Impossible

Many technological and scientific breakthroughs were thought to be impossible before they were achieved. Examine several famous cases in which foremost experts were proved wrong-about heavier-than-air flight, space travel, the chemical composition of stars, and the existence of life forms at ultrahigh temperatures....

30 min
Perpetual Motion
3: Perpetual Motion

Probe one of the most enduring of all impossible quests: the search for a perpetual motion machine. Learn how the futility of such a pursuit was explained four centuries ago by the Flemish mathematician Simon Stevin, whose work eventually led to the law of conservation of energy....

31 min
On Sunshine and Invisible Particles
4: On Sunshine and Invisible Particles

Investigate two challenges to the law of conservation of energy, also known as the first law of thermodynamics. In the 19th century, the source of the sun's energy seemed inexplicable, until the discovery of radioactivity. Then, in the 20th century, a type of radioactive decay appeared to violate energy conservation, until the discovery of an invisible elementary particle....

31 min
Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire
5: Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire

Learn how the 19th-century French engineer Nicolas Carnot showed that only a temperature difference can be used to generate work, and that some waste heat must always be lost-ideas that led to the second law of thermodynamics and the important concept of entropy....

30 min
Maxwell's Demon
6: Maxwell's Demon

Entropy always increases in a system in which work is being done. Investigate James Clerk Maxwell's famous "demon"-an imaginary being that, in principle, appears to violate the entropy law. See how the demon paradox was resolved by interpreting entropy as information....

30 min
Absolute Zero
7: Absolute Zero

Learn how absolute zero (0 K or -273.15 degrees Celsius) is unattainable due to the third law of thermodynamics. Nonetheless, remarkable things happen on the way toward this impossible goal. For example, electrical resistance and viscosity drop to zero in certain substances, and weird quantum mechanical effects occur....

31 min
Predicting the Future
8: Predicting the Future

Consider a new kind of impossible thing: predicting the future in the presence of chaos. Even the slightest imprecision in present knowledge makes the long-term future unknowable. This is the phenomenon of dynamical chaos, also known as the "butterfly effect"-from the ability of a single flapping butterfly to radically affect future weather....

29 min
Visiting the Past
9: Visiting the Past

Explore the paradoxes of time travel. These are so fundamental that most physicists regard time travel as a near-absolute impossibility, yet science-fiction writers-and a few imaginative physicists-have proposed ways to avoid these difficulties. Look into some of their intriguing ideas....

30 min
Thinking in Space-Time
10: Thinking in Space-Time

Is the passage of time merely "a stubborn illusion," as Einstein believed? Investigate the revolutionary concept of space-time that emerges from his theory of relativity, which involved a major redrawing of the boundary between the possible and the impossible in physics....

30 min
Faster than Light
11: Faster than Light

Nothing can travel faster than light. Is there a way around this prohibition? Learn that it all depends on what is meant by a "thing." By considering various thought experiments, discover that this ultimate speed limit applies fundamentally to information, which means it is impossible to send a message into the past....

29 min
Black Holes and Curved Space-Time
12: Black Holes and Curved Space-Time

Einstein's general theory of relativity interprets gravity as a distortion of space-time near a massive object. Find out that for a very massive, dense object, this can result in a "black hole"-a region where the distortion is so strong that escape is impossible....

32 min
A Spinning Universe, Wormholes, and Such
13: A Spinning Universe, Wormholes, and Such

Delve deeper into Einstein's theories to uncover some startling implications: The entire cosmos could be rotating on its axis, giving rise to several supposedly impossible phenomena, already dismissed. Weigh the evidence for and against "exotic" matter, wormholes, and other hypothetical features of space-time....

31 min
What Is Symmetry?
14: What Is Symmetry?

Something is symmetric if it is impossible to tell whether a particular transformation has been applied. Explore this fascinating boundary between the possible and impossible, which includes some of the deepest principles of physics-among them, the surprising connection between symmetry and conservation laws discovered by mathematician Emmy Noether....

31 min
Mirror Worlds
15: Mirror Worlds

Inspect the universe through three special mirrors. One is an ordinary mirror that reflects left and right. Another mirror exchanges matter and antimatter. The third switches the future and the past. Is it possible to tell these mirror-worlds from our own? What does that imply about the laws of nature?...

31 min
Invasion of the Giant Insects
16: Invasion of the Giant Insects

Test a favorite plot device of science-fiction movies by examining whether supersize gorillas, insects as big as trucks, and other ordinary creatures enlarged to gigantic size can really exist. Is there a physical reason such monsters are in fact impossible?...

30 min
The Curious Quantum World
17: The Curious Quantum World

With the discovery of quantum mechanics in the early 20th century, the accepted boundary between the possible and the impossible was changed in radical ways. Begin a series of lectures on the quantum realm with a look at three of its key features....

29 min
Impossible Exactness
18: Impossible Exactness

In Newtonian physics, the position and velocity of a particle can both be specified to any level of precision. Not so in quantum mechanics, where these are limited by Heisenberg's famous uncertainty principle. Investigate the consequences of this fundamental restriction on what it's possible to know....

30 min
Quantum Tunneling
19: Quantum Tunneling

Discover how phenomena deemed impossible in classical physics are a regular feature of the quantum world-notably quantum tunneling, which is the ability of a subatomic particle to surmount a seemingly impassable energy barrier. One result of this effect: Black holes emit a slow trickle of energy known as Hawking radiation....

29 min
Whatever Is Not Forbidden Is Compulsory
20: Whatever Is Not Forbidden Is Compulsory

Explore a startling rule in quantum mechanics: Anything that can possibly happen, will happen. This means that whatever does not happen, whatever is truly impossible among the elementary particles, provides a clue to the fundamental laws of nature....

32 min
Entanglement and Quantum Cloning
21: Entanglement and Quantum Cloning

Delve into the weirdest of all quantum phenomena: entanglement, which causes a pair of quantum particles to behave as if they are telepathically connected. By cloning quantum particles, this effect could, in theory, allow faster-than-light signals, but there are fundamental reasons this is impossible....

29 min
Geometry and Conservation
22: Geometry and Conservation

Where do conservation laws come from? How does nature "enforce" them? Investigate these questions by performing a remarkable thought experiment: See how Maxwell's laws of electromagnetism and the geometry of space together imply the conservation of electric charge, even in a theoretical "electromagnetic-free" zone....

32 min
Symmetry, Information, and Probability
23: Symmetry, Information, and Probability

Survey the landscape of the impossible by focusing on three recurring themes in the course: One, symmetries are among the deepest principles in physics; two, the idea of information is pervasive; three, many phenomena that appear to be impossible are only statistical impossibilities....

29 min
The Future of the Impossible
24: The Future of the Impossible

Professor Schumacher concludes the course with his million-dollar list-those things he would be willing to bet a million dollars will remain impossible even in the face of future discoveries. But first he challenges you to draw on your newly acquired knowledge of physics to propose your own list....

31 min
Benjamin Schumacher

Gravity is about both phenomena near at hand at the human scale, everyday and intuitive, and phenomena far off at an astronomical scale.


The University of Texas at Austin


Kenyon College

About Benjamin Schumacher

Dr. Benjamin Schumacher is Professor of Physics at Kenyon College, where he has taught for 20 years. He received his Ph.D. in Theoretical Physics from The University of Texas at Austin in 1990. Professor Schumacher is the author of numerous scientific papers and two books, including Physics in Spacetime: An Introduction to Special Relativity. As one of the founders of quantum information theory, he introduced the term qubit, invented quantum data compression (also known as Schumacher compression), and established several fundamental results about the information capacity of quantum systems. For his contributions, he won the 2002 Quantum Communication Award, the premier international prize in the field, and was named a Fellow of the American Physical Society. Besides working on quantum information theory, he has done physics research on black holes, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics. Professor Schumacher has spent sabbaticals working at Los Alamos National Laboratory and as a Moore Distinguished Scholar at the Institute for Quantum Information at California Institute of Technology. He has also done research at the Isaac Newton Institute of Cambridge University, the Santa Fe Institute, the Perimeter Institute, the University of New Mexico, the University of Montreal, the University of Innsbruck, and the University of Queensland.

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