Foundations of Western Civilization II: A History of the Modern Western World

Rated 5 out of 5 by from Good Overview! This course presents complete view that leads us to understanding our modern world. It allows us to understand the "great chain of being" how it changed perspectives and cultures and how we are influenced by it today,
Date published: 2020-10-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A terrific lecturer I am really enjoying Dr Bucholz lectures, I am nearly finished listening, but I do enjoy replaying lectures that I find particularly interesting. Dr. Bucholz has a very engaging way of delivery— in each new lecture, he retraces at times and ties in the mix of relevant events to refresh your memory of salient events in past lectures to create a more complete picture. On top of this, he has a great sense of humor that makes him very likable and person you feel you personally know.
Date published: 2020-10-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Superb survey course Dr. Bucholz is perhaps the best professor I have had the pleasure of listening to among the Great Courses faculty. His enthusiasm and command of his subject matter is simply outstanding. I recommend this course highly and without reservation for anyone interested in history.
Date published: 2020-09-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A very live lecturer It is a joy to watch and hear Dr. Bucholz lecturing. He looks as if he has fun with it while imparting information all the time. He ties together the more recent European history in a uniques manner.
Date published: 2020-06-25
Rated 5 out of 5 by from So much information! I really love this course. I know this period pretty well, but learned a lot.
Date published: 2020-06-24
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A course to lay intellectual foundations I bought this course several years ago and it is one of a few that I have listened to again and again. I'm a truck driver so I have hours of listening time built into my day and I feel the need to hear this one again every couple of years. Professor Bucholz is an easy listen to start with, but he is making the point that there is something just a little special about the English-speaking peoples. I suppose I am biased as one of these but he makes the case that the English-speaking peoples came through the past several centuries of Reformation, Imperialism, Industrialization, Democratization and Socialism just a bit ahead of their European neighbours because of something more than the usual "colonialism and exploitation" postmodern memes that anyone who has been in school in the past few decades would be familiar with. And that we have something worth saving. Our own British historians (and I'm a Canadian) are wont to gloss over the removing of King Charles' head by an executioner's axe over a century before the French Revolution - just as American historians are wont to begin the American Revolution with taxes on stamps and tea rather than the Proclamation of 1763 or the Somerset decision of 1772 - but through it all runs the English Common Law, the Enlightenment and ideas of fairness and representative government that were late in coming to other Protestant nations and deformed or stillborn in parts of the world even further away. The idea that a person is innocent until proven guilty and judged by a jury of their peers: huge. I think Professor Bucholz makes a very good point - with clarity and a few chuckles thrown in: there is a lot more to the history of the English-speaking peoples than what is presented in our schools today. It is the reason immigrants and refugees from all over the world want to come to Protestant and English-speaking countries. We were never handed fair trials or representative government or freedom of religion; what justice, democracy and liberty we have were seized from monarchs, feudal lords, factory owners and robber barons at great cost - and it is an ongoing project. And it is a worthwhile project. Professor Bucholz might not have thought he was laying it out exactly like that for me... then again he might have. Great course. Great teacher.
Date published: 2020-04-18
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Extremely Impressive Presentation This course gives an inclusive view of the period and is not only informative but also highly entertaining. Professor Bucholz is a master of the material and has a subtle and pleasant sense of humor. This course is well worth the time.
Date published: 2020-04-09
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Made me look forward to my weekly 14 mile runs I've taken dozens and dozens of Great Courses. This is, by far, one of the best. I say that because I limited myself to only listening to it when I would run my weekly 14 mile run --> it literally made me look forward to the weekly run regardless of weather. There's only 2 other courses that similarly captured me in that way. (One other being "Greenberg's How to listen to and Understand Great Music) Though, as always, buy it on sale, (or via a subscription)
Date published: 2019-09-21
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Foundations of Western Civilization II: A History of the Modern Western World
Course Trailer
The Importance of the West
1: The Importance of the West

This lecture is an overview of the past 500 years of European history and culture-the system of government, economic structures, science and technology, and much of the literature, art, and music....

32 min
Geography Is Destiny
2: Geography Is Destiny

We look at how the physical realities of Europe and the Atlantic world-its geography and climate-shaped its destiny by affecting patterns of population, immigration, diplomacy, war, and political and cultural divisions....

31 min
Culture Is Destiny
3: Culture Is Destiny

The "Great Chain of Being" assumed an ordered, hierarchical universe in which humans-like angels, animals, plants, and even stones-were placed in a particular rank by God. As Europe emerges from the Middle Ages, that concept is challenged and strained by forces in politics, society, religion, and culture....

30 min
Renaissance Humanism-1350-1650
4: Renaissance Humanism-1350-1650

A revived interest in the literary and historical works of classical Greece and Rome unleashes new ideas about the qualifications of a gentleman, the role of women, and the expectations of a prince-with a resulting emphasis on textual accuracy, literacy, education, and the human and practical....

31 min
Renaissance Princes-1450-1600
5: Renaissance Princes-1450-1600

The Humanist emphasis dovetails with the rise of a new kind of ruler, with expanding powers in every area of life and seeking to pay for their ambitions by claiming trade routes to the Far East and the Americas....

31 min
The New World & the Old-1400-1650
6: The New World & the Old-1400-1650

The exploration and exploitation of Africa and Asia by the Portuguese, and of the Americas by first the Spanish, then the French and English, change the economies, cultures, and political makeup of these regions forever....

31 min
The Protestant Reformation-1500-22
7: The Protestant Reformation-1500-22

The rise of literacy and the development of the printing press make possible the dissemination of powerful new ideas-particularly those of Augustinian priest and reformer Martin Luther....

31 min
The Wars of Religion-1523-1648
8: The Wars of Religion-1523-1648

The Reformation splits Europe into opposing camps, producing a series of bloodbaths culminating in the Thirty Years' War, the near-bankruptcy of Spain, and the eventual conviction that perhaps religious matters are best settled peacefully....

31 min
Rational & Scientific Revolutions-1450-1650
9: Rational & Scientific Revolutions-1450-1650

Beginning with Copernicus in the 15th century, European thinkers such as Galileo, Kepler, Bacon, and Newton question old views on how the world works, pioneering the Scientific Method....

30 min
French Absolutism-1589-1715
10: French Absolutism-1589-1715

Following the disasters of the Wars of Religion, the monarchies of Europe experience a crisis of authority. The French response-ultimately perfected by Louis XIV-of an absolutism that makes the king a virtual god on Earth becomes an object of envy and imitation for nearly every monarchy on the continent....

31 min
English Constitutionalism-1603-49
11: English Constitutionalism-1603-49

The Stuart monarchs of England struggle with Parliament and their own foibles and extravagance. The resulting English Civil Wars culminate in the trial and execution of King Charles I in 1649....

31 min
English Constitutionalism-1649-89
12: English Constitutionalism-1649-89

After the execution of Charles I, England experiments with a republic, a protectorate, and even, once again, a semi-absolutist monarchy, before the Glorious Revolution sets an example of an alternative, more democratic, form of government for Europe and the Americas....

30 min
War, Trade, Empire-1688-1702
13: War, Trade, Empire-1688-1702

The Revolution of 1688-89 precipitates a series of general European wars pitting the French against the British and Dutch for mastery in Europe and control of trade with colonies in America and Asia....

31 min
War, Trade, Empire-1702-14
14: War, Trade, Empire-1702-14

Building on its military success-powered by innovative deficit financing-Britain becomes the most prosperous trading nation in Europe, with much of the foundation of that prosperity built on the misery of Africans forced into the Triangular Atlantic trade in sugar, tobacco, and African slaves....

30 min
War, Trade, Empire-1714-63
15: War, Trade, Empire-1714-63

Most of Europe, and France in particular, emerges from two decades of warfare exhausted financially and militarily, but the peace is temporary. A new round of conflicts leaves Britain the undisputed master of the Canadian and Eastern seaboards of North America....

31 min
Life Under the Ancien Regime-1689-1789
16: Life Under the Ancien Regime-1689-1789

Thanks to commercial and financial revolutions, the middling orders of merchants and professionals are growing in numbers, wealth, and political savvy-and will be key to the coming revolution in European social and economic relations....

31 min
Enlightenment & Despotism
17: Enlightenment & Despotism

European thinkers such as Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, and Rousseau expand the ideas of Locke and others in a movement that comes to be known as the Enlightenment. When even enlightened monarchs fail to change their societies, some Europeans begin to consider an alternative: revolution....

31 min
The American Revolution
18: The American Revolution

The American Revolution becomes a fight over Enlightenment ideas. The new republic and its constitution represent the first comprehensive attempt to put those ideas into practice and become a model and inspiration to Europeans who want reform....

31 min
The French Revolution-1789-92
19: The French Revolution-1789-92

Nearly bankrupted by its participation in the American Revolution, and unable to achieve reform under its existing system, France becomes a constitutional monarchy, with aristocratic privilege abolished and a Declaration of the Rights of Man set forth. But will Louis XVI accept his reduced role?...

31 min
The French Revolution-1792-1803
20: The French Revolution-1792-1803

As the king-urged on by monarchs elsewhere-refuses that new role, the Revolution turns violent, unleashing a Reign of Terror that eventually brings about war with virtually every other monarchy in Europe, a new nationalism, and the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte....

30 min
The Napoleonic Empire-1803-15
21: The Napoleonic Empire-1803-15

Despite a succession of brilliant victories, Napoleon's efforts to conquer Britain and force the nations of Europe into his system meet with eventual defeat. Nevertheless, the sense of nationalism spread by France has changed the political climate, as the Congress of Vienna learns in attempting to restore the Bourbon monarchy....

30 min
Beginnings of Industrialization-1760-1850
22: Beginnings of Industrialization-1760-1850

While several factors make Europe the logical place for industrialization to begin, it is Britain's advantages-financial, political, and social-that makes it the best-suited country to exploit those conditions. The result is a host of brilliant inventors, financiers, and managers who bring about the first Industrial Revolution....

30 min
Consequences of Industrialization-1760-1850
23: Consequences of Industrialization-1760-1850

The consequences of the first Industrial Revolution do more to create today's world than any other development studied in this course. But its innovations have a dark side that draws multiple responses from European intellectuals-which we examine in the next three lectures....

30 min
The Liberal Response-1776-1861
24: The Liberal Response-1776-1861

The appalling conditions of life and work for the working class produce a series of intellectual and political reactions in Western Europe, with the best routes to reform the subject of wide-ranging debate among liberal thinkers....

31 min
The Romantic Response-1789-1870
25: The Romantic Response-1789-1870

In the face of half-hearted or partial solutions to the problems of the Industrial Revolution, Romantic writers such as Wordsworth, Blake, and Shelley urge revolution, forever altering how Europeans and, later, Americans, perceive the world....

31 min
The Socialist Response-1813-1905
26: The Socialist Response-1813-1905

The urgings of early Socialists for voluntarily sharing wealth eventually give way to the demands of Marx and Engels for more radical action. Though Marx's critique is influential, several factors prevent industrial Europe from ever experiencing the revolution for which he calls....

31 min
Descent of Man; Rise of Woman-1830-90
27: Descent of Man; Rise of Woman-1830-90

Industrialization is the material product of an age of scientific advance. But science, with its emphasis on empirical evidence, reason, and experimentation, also revolutionizes how Europeans think, as one after another, fundamental beliefs and traditions are challenged....

31 min
Nationalism-1815-48
28: Nationalism-1815-48

The Industrial Revolution is primarily a northern and western European phenomenon. Elsewhere, the big issue is nationalism, and the failure of the Congress of Vienna to take nationalism and liberalism into account leads to revolutions across Europe throughout the next 30 years....

30 min
Nationalism-1848-71
29: Nationalism-1848-71

Despite the rise of nationalism on the continent, the balance of European power remains stable. It is not until the unification of Germany at the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 that this fragile balance is affected for generations to come....

30 min
Imperial Rivalry-1870-1914
30: Imperial Rivalry-1870-1914

The European powers, as well as the United States, seek new empires overseas. The resulting competition for colonies breeds conflict between nations that otherwise have no reason to fight, a factor that in the long run contributes to World War I....

31 min
Industrial Rivalry-1870-1914
31: Industrial Rivalry-1870-1914

The second Industrial Revolution creates, for most people, a cornucopia of opportunities and new products. Internationally, two new industrial giants arise to challenge Great Britain, and tensions with one help to frame World War I....

30 min
The Alliance System-1872-1914
32: The Alliance System-1872-1914

A series of interlocking treaties devised by Otto von Bismarck to ease conditions in the Balkans prevents nationalistic and economic pressures from exploding into full-scale European war, but new tensions eventually grow to overwhelm it....

30 min
Decadence & Malaise-circa 1900
33: Decadence & Malaise-circa 1900

The start of the Great War is greeted by cheering crowds and floods of volunteering men all over Europe. For some the reasons involve nationalism and patriotism; for others it's a chance to flee a stagnant economy or find answers for a society and culture in flux....

30 min
The Great War Begins-1914-16
34: The Great War Begins-1914-16

The rapid mobilization of Russia and the determined resistance of France ruin Germany's plans for quick victory. The new inventions of the second Industrial Revolution give the defensive side all the advantages, and the armies of Europe are locked into a bloody stalemate of trench warfare....

30 min
Breaking the Deadlock-1915-17
35: Breaking the Deadlock-1915-17

Both sides try in vain to break the deadlock. Germany's sinking of merchant ships inevitably draws America into the war. In 1917, the Germans play another card as they attempt to foment revolution in Russia....

31 min
The Russian Revolution-1917-22
36: The Russian Revolution-1917-22

The most backward and repressive nation in Europe, terribly overmatched in the war, experiences the overthrow of both its czar and the republican government that succeeds him before suing for peace with Germany and establishing the world's first Communist government.

31 min
The End of the War-1917-22
37: The End of the War-1917-22

Its final effort to win the war thwarted, and facing food and fuel shortages, Germany finally agrees to an armistice. The ensuing peace conference produces a treaty that will weaken the German economy and breed tremendous resentment....

31 min
Recovery & Depression in the West-1919-36
38: Recovery & Depression in the West-1919-36

The world economy only slowly recovers from the Great War. America emerges as both Europe's creditor and the world's wealthiest nation, with the collapse of the stock market having a disastrous ripple effect....

30 min
Totalitarian Russia-1918-39
39: Totalitarian Russia-1918-39

Lenin's early experiments with forced collectivization at home and revolution abroad are disastrous for the Soviet Union's domestic and foreign policy and even worse for its people. When Lenin dies, a vicious power struggle results in the rise of Josef Stalin....

30 min
Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany-1922-36
40: Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany-1922-36

The disillusionment in Europe with democracy and, later, capitalism following the Great War and the Great Depression make alternatives seem reasonable. Mussolini and Hitler seize power and create states that boast full employment-at a price....

30 min
The Holocaust-1933-45
41: The Holocaust-1933-45

The Nazi regime embarks on the extermination of Jews, Slavs, homosexuals, and other "undesirables" in Europe. The lecture concludes with a meditation on the meaning of this crime and its implications for the concept of Western civilization....

31 min
The Failure of Diplomacy-1935-39
42: The Failure of Diplomacy-1935-39

In both the Far East and Europe, aggression brings the world closer to war. Following its earlier invasion of Manchuria with an invasion of the rest of northern China in 1937, Japan has joined the Axis powers, and Hitler marches a rearmed Germany into the Rhineland, Austria, and then Czechoslovakia....

31 min
World War II-1939-42
43: World War II-1939-42

This first lecture on World War II begins with Hitler's Blitzkrieg invasion of Poland and continues until the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and Hitler's decision to declare war on the United States....

30 min
World War II-1942-45
44: World War II-1942-45

From 1942 on, the sheer size of the Soviet Union and its army, combined with the industrial might of the United States, guarantee an Allied victory-but the cost will be very high....

31 min
American Hegemony, Soviet Challenge-1945-75
45: American Hegemony, Soviet Challenge-1945-75

The two undisputed superpowers threaten each other with nuclear arsenals and fight proxy wars for global dominance. Americans use their leadership and wealth to establish democracies in Germany and Italy and to restore Western European economies through the Marshall Plan. This lecture doesn't address the end of the Cold War....

30 min
Rebuilding Europe-1945-85
46: Rebuilding Europe-1945-85

The great nations of Europe are forced to re-evaluate their positions. Gradually, often reluctantly, and sometimes violently, they divest themselves of overseas colonies, accommodate themselves to a precarious existence between the superpowers, and concentrate on rebuilding their economies....

30 min
The New Europe-1985-2001
47: The New Europe-1985-2001

After the fall of the Soviet Union, the nations of Europe form a European Union with an aim to reshape the politics and economics of the region and the world, even as it deals with many new challenges....

30 min
The Meaning of Western Civilization
48: The Meaning of Western Civilization

At the dawn of the 21st century, the European legacy of democracy, capitalism, and relative freedom for the individual is challenged by internal and external movements, including the rise of religious fundamentalism, international terrorism, tensions over immigration, and integration into a global economy. Will European ideals survive?...

32 min
Robert Bucholz

This course is much more than a way to pass the time. It is, rather, a toolkit for any citizen of the West, a survival kit for any citizen of the world.

ALMA MATER

Oxford University

INSTITUTION

Loyola University Chicago

About Robert Bucholz

Dr. Robert Bucholz is Professor of History at Loyola University Chicago, where he has taught since 1988. He earned his B.A. in History from Cornell University and his D.Phil. in Modern History from Oxford University. Before joining the faculty at Loyola University, Professor Bucholz taught at numerous universities, including Cornell University; California State University, Long Beach; and Loyola, Marymount University. He is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. Among Professor Bucholz's numerous teaching awards are the Sujack Award for Teaching Excellence, the highest such award presented by the Loyola College of Arts and Sciences. On two occasions, he received the Honors Program Faculty Member of the Year Award. At Loyola University, Professor Bucholz teaches courses on Early Modern London, Early Modern England, and English Social History. He is the author or coauthor of books on English history, including Early Modern England: A Narrative History and The Augustan Court: Queen Anne and the Decline of Court Culture. Professor Bucholz is also the project director of the Database of Court Officers, which contains the career facts of every person who served in the British royal household from the Restoration to the death of Queen Victoria.

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