Major Transitions in Evolution

Major Transitions in Evolution
Course Trailer
Macroevolution and Major Transitions
1: Macroevolution and Major Transitions

Professor Anthony Martin introduces the nearly 4-billion-year history of life by reviewing the basic concepts of macroevolution-the appearance of new forms of life from older forms of life. Learn how macroevolution leads to the major transitions covered in the course, such as the development of multicelled animals, flowering plants, and primates.

33 min
Paleontology and Geologic Time
2: Paleontology and Geologic Time

Plunge into "deep time" by examining the two major types of evidence used in paleontology, which is the study of ancient life: namely, body fossils (shells, bones, molds, casts, eggs) and trace fossils (tracks, burrows, nests). Also, see how fossils are used together with radiometric dating to construct the geologic time scale.

31 min
Single-Celled Life-Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes
3: Single-Celled Life-Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes

Complex life traces back to the Proterozoic eon, when simple one-celled organisms called prokaryotes evolved specialized structures and became new types of cells called eukaryotes. Investigate how this major transition took place, paving the way for the profusion of life forms explored in the rest of the course.

28 min
Metazoans-The Earliest Multicellular Animals
4: Metazoans-The Earliest Multicellular Animals

Make the leap from individual eukaryotic cells to organized groups of cells, called metazoans, which represent the first animals. Learn what distinguishes animals from plants, and how strange forms of animals flourished about 600 million years ago in shallow-marine environments devoid of predators.

27 min
The Development of Skeletons
5: The Development of Skeletons

Fossil beds such as the famous Burgess Shale in Canada show that life diversified quickly in the Cambrian period, about 500 million years ago. Discover that the reason relates to an "arms race" between predator and prey, which saw the development of skeletons and other mineralized parts.

29 min
The Rise of Vertebrates
6: The Rise of Vertebrates

Delve into a long-running paleontological mystery: conodonts survive only as tooth-like fossils, but paleontologists now know these were parts of eel-like creatures with primitive backbones. Such early vertebrates later diversified into fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.

29 min
Colonization of the Land
7: Colonization of the Land

Venture out of the water and onto land to learn how life adapted to terrestrial environments in the early part of the Paleozoic era, 500 to 400 million years ago. Algae, fungi, plants, and animals all had to evolve to survive and thrive in what were originally forbidding, barren landscapes.

33 min
Origins of Insects and of Powered Flight
8: Origins of Insects and of Powered Flight

Travel to the Devonian period, roughly 400 million years ago, and look at the early evolution of insects and insect flight. This major transition gave rise to what are today the most diverse and evolutionarily successful group of animals.

30 min
Seed Plants and the First Forests
9: Seed Plants and the First Forests

Landscapes without large trees were typical before the early Carboniferous period, about 400 million years ago. Survey the fossil record for clues to the evolution of the first seed plants, called pteridosperms ("seed ferns"). These and other plants formed early forests, now preserved in much of the world's coal deposits.

34 min
From Fish to 4-Limbed Animals
10: From Fish to 4-Limbed Animals

The canopies provided by early forests gave vertebrates new opportunities to get out of the water and start moving around on land. Learn how all four-limbed vertebrates (tetrapods) owe their evolutionary origins to lobe-finned fish that started this transition about 380 million years ago.

29 min
The Egg Came First-Early Reptile Evolution
11: The Egg Came First-Early Reptile Evolution

The chicken versus egg question has a thought-provoking answer from evolution. Explore the factors that led to the enclosed, amniotic egg, an adaptation that allowed primitive reptiles to spread into new environments on land, some 150 million years before reptiles branched into birds-and only much later into chickens.

30 min
The Origins and Successes of the Dinosaurs
12: The Origins and Successes of the Dinosaurs

Jump ahead to the Triassic period, about 250 to 200 million years ago, to investigate how small diapsid reptiles, whose living descendants include crocodiles and lizards, evolved into the most popular and iconic of all animals from the fossil record: the dinosaurs.

29 min
Marine and Flying Reptiles
13: Marine and Flying Reptiles

Dinosaurs dominated the land from the Triassic to Cretaceous periods, about 230 to 65 million years ago, but evolution favored other reptiles to rule the seas and sky. Inspect these many "-saurs," including ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurs, and pterosaurs.

28 min
Birds-The Dinosaurs among Us
14: Birds-The Dinosaurs among Us

"Dinosaur" has become a synonym for a failure to adapt to changing circumstances. But the dinosaur lineage survives today through birds. Starting with the remarkable transitional fossil Archaeopteryx, examine the evolutionary transition of theropod dinosaurs into graceful creatures of the air, which still retain some dinosaur-like characteristics....

31 min
The First Flowers and Pollinator Coevolution
15: The First Flowers and Pollinator Coevolution

Flowers are so widespread that it's hard to imagine a world without them. Return to just such a setting in the early Cretaceous period, and follow the selection pressures that led to primitive flowering plants, which developed in concert with the evolution of bees and other pollinating creatures.

33 min
Egg to Placenta-Early Mammal Evolution
16: Egg to Placenta-Early Mammal Evolution

Discover how mammals evolved from reptiles around 230 million years ago and later underwent an evolutionary leap from egg-laying to giving live birth. Surviving the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period 65 million years ago, they took off in an astounding burst of adaptive radiation.

31 min
From Land to Sea-The Evolution of Whales
17: From Land to Sea-The Evolution of Whales

Among the transitions that took place about 50 million years ago was the move of some land-dwelling mammals to marine environments, leading to modern whales. Considering that some whales became the most massive animals in the history of Earth, explore the question, "Why so big?"

29 min
Moving on Up-The First Primates
18: Moving on Up-The First Primates

Professor John Hawks takes over from Professor Martin in the first of his six lectures on the evolutionary steps from early primates to modern humans. Learn how the first primates were uniquely adapted to navigate the complex canopies of ancient forests about 60 million years ago.

32 min
Apes-Swinging Down from the Trees
19: Apes-Swinging Down from the Trees

Trace the evolution of some primates into monkeys and apes, culminating in "the age of apes" beginning around 25 million years ago. Within their great diversity of size, diet, social structure, and ways of moving, one ape lineage appeared in Africa different from the others, sharing many features with modern humans.

32 min
From 4 Legs to 2-The Hominin Radiation
20: From 4 Legs to 2-The Hominin Radiation

Examine fossil clues to the first major transition of human evolution: the development of upright walking. Being a biped has many advantages but also some major drawbacks. What body changes allowed early hominins like Australopithecus (including the famous Lucy) to walk efficiently on two legs?

31 min
First Humans-Toolmakers and Hunter-Gatherers
21: First Humans-Toolmakers and Hunter-Gatherers

The first stone tools, 2.6 million years old, mark a change to a human-like social and cognitive system. Probe the nature of such early implements, and the hunting and gathering culture they represent-a way of life that placed many demands on human brains.

32 min
From Homo to sapiens-Talking and Thinking
22: From Homo to sapiens-Talking and Thinking

Follow modern humans from their African homeland, about 100,000 years ago, as they dispersed into the ancient populations of Europe and Asia, challenging the territory of earlier humans. These rivals include the Neandertals, who are now much better understood through the decoding of their genome.

32 min
Our Accelerating Evolution
23: Our Accelerating Evolution

Human evolution did not stop with the advent of modern people. Consider how humans today are the descendants of incredible survivors, with a legacy of new genes that continue to affect diet, disease, physical appearance, and features such as skull and brain size, which has actually decreased in the past 10,000 years.

32 min
Reflections on Major Transitions
24: Reflections on Major Transitions

Conclude the course by experiencing a fascinating discussion between Professors Martin and Hawks as they compare perspectives, probe common themes in the major evolutionary transitions over the past

33 min
Anthony Martin

To better overcome the challenges of confronting deep time when studying evolution, paleontology and geology are the most important sciences.

ALMA MATER

University of Georgia

INSTITUTION

University of Georgia

About Anthony Martin

Dr. Anthony Martin is Professor of Practice in the Department of Environmental Studies at Emory University, where he has taught courses in geology, paleontology, environmental science, and evolutionary biology since 1990. He earned his B.S. in Geobiology from St. Joseph's College (Indiana), M.S. in Geology from Miami University (Ohio), and Ph.D. in Geology from the University of Georgia. At Emory, he has been recognized with both university- and student-sponsored teaching awards, including the Emory Center for Teaching and Curriculum's Award for Excellence in Teaching. Dr. Martin's research focuses on ichnology, the study of modern and fossil traces, such as tracks, trails, burrows, nests, and other signs of behavior. Among his notable achievements is his co-discovery of the only known burrowing dinosaur. Dr. Martin has authored more than 30 peer-reviewed publications, as well as three books, including Introduction to the Study of Dinosaurs.

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