Plant Science: An Introduction to Botany

Plant Science: An Introduction to Botany
Course Trailer
The Joy of Botany
1: The Joy of Botany

Although almost every child knows the difference between an elephant and a giraffe, few people of any age can name the plants they see out their window every single day. Solve this "plant blindness" by learning about the fascinating lifeforms to whom we owe so much: oxygen, food, medicine, materials-but also fascination and joy.

30 min
Plants Are like People
2: Plants Are like People

Although our biology is significantly different than that of plants, scientists are discovering more and more similarities. We share quite a bit of DNA, thrive in moderate temperatures, have a circadian rhythm of rest and activity, require water for life, and can sense our environment and respond. Some scientists suggest that plants might even have developed a type of "hearing."...

31 min
Moss Sex and Peat's Engineered Habitat
3: Moss Sex and Peat's Engineered Habitat

More than 425 million years ago, a group of plants called bryophytes developed two special adaptations that allowed them to inhabit dry land. Why are these early plants still so important today, both environmentally and commercially? And how does one of these most ancient species engineer its own habitat to the exclusion of more modern competitors?...

35 min
Fern Spores and the Vascular Conquest of Land
4: Fern Spores and the Vascular Conquest of Land

Botanists still struggle to unravel the full evolutionary history of ferns, hardy plants of staggering reproductive and colonization power. With billions of lightweight spores produced by each individual and the vasculature to transport nutrients throughout the plant, ferns are found in low-light and bright-light environments from the arctic regions to the tropics....

30 min
Roots and Symbiosis with Non-Plants
5: Roots and Symbiosis with Non-Plants

Photosynthesis might be the "star," but what takes place under the soil is just as imperative for plant survival. In fact, the root is so important that it's the first evidence of germination in the seed. Learn how roots physically support the plant, absorb water and minerals, and store carbohydrates, almost always relying on symbiosis with bacteria and fungi.

32 min
Stems Are More Than Just the In-Between
6: Stems Are More Than Just the In-Between

Learn how the pressure flow hypothesis models the movement of sugars through the plant's phloem and xylem, and what plant structures determine whether the organism will grow in height, girth, or both. And while the stem functions to support the plant's branches and leaves, in some plants the stem is also the site of photosynthesis....

30 min
The Leaf as a Biochemical Factory
7: The Leaf as a Biochemical Factory

Plants "know" when to shed their leaves or grow new ones via the same mechanism that causes the many developmental changes in our own bodies: hormones. Learn about the hormones that affect leaf growth and abscission -- and the role played by Charles Darwin in their discovery....

32 min
Photosynthesis Everyone Should Understand
8: Photosynthesis Everyone Should Understand

Green plants generate their mass-whether the mass of the smallest blade of grass or the tallest tree on Earth-by synthesizing food from carbon dioxide and water via the energy from sunlight with the help of appropriate enzymes. See how the fascinating details of photosynthesis separate the plants from the animals....

31 min
Days and Years in the Lives of Plants
9: Days and Years in the Lives of Plants

How do plants "choose" the best time to flower? Do they sense the daylight hours becoming longer in the springtime? Or do they sense the nights becoming shorter? Learn which pigments interact with sunlight to serve as chemical clocks for flowering plants and what roles are played by messenger RNA and temperature-including their part in climate change....

32 min
Advent of Seeds: Cycads and Ginkgoes
10: Advent of Seeds: Cycads and Ginkgoes

While spores have continued to provide effective reproduction through the millennia, evolution has led to several successful alternatives. In a little package of embryonic roots, stems, leaves, and nourishment, a seed offers the ability to lie dormant until conditions are right for the highest chance of survival. Learn about the unique properties of the cycads, gingkos, and gnetophytes...

29 min
Why Conifers Are Holiday Plants
11: Why Conifers Are Holiday Plants

Meet the conifers, well-adapted to snow, wind, fire, and low-nutrient soils. Learn how the unique properties of conifers allow them to claim the largest forest on Earth, the oldest living tree, and the tallest plant-with a growth rate of up to six feet per year. Conifers are also the source of one of the most prescribed cancer drugs on the market.

30 min
Secrets of Flower Power
12: Secrets of Flower Power

Flowering plants arrived relatively late in geological time, between 290 to 145 million years ago. But once here, they evolved quickly and often displaced many other types of plants. In fact, in terms of species, flowering plants are the dominant plant form on Earth today with more than 300,000 types. Learn how their unique reproductive mechanisms led to this explosion of speciat...

33 min
The Coevolution of Who Pollinates Whom
13: The Coevolution of Who Pollinates Whom

Which came first-the pollen or the pollinator? Learn about the special evolutionary relationship between specific flowers and the insects, birds, and mammals that play a necessary role in plant reproduction. The flowers' morphology, color, and quality and quantity of scent are all related to "their" animals' body shape, sense organs, method of movement, and more in this never-ending co...

31 min
The Many Forms of Fruit: Tomatoes to Peanuts
14: The Many Forms of Fruit: Tomatoes to Peanuts

If you think you know the difference between a fruit, a nut, and a fungus-think again. Learn the real difference between nuts, fruits, and seeds, and why so many foods we eat carry misleading common names. As for those beautiful and tasty fungi, you might be surprised to find out they have more in common with you than with plants!

30 min
Plant Seeds Get Around
15: Plant Seeds Get Around

The evolution of the seed was a major advantage for land plants. But unlike gymnosperms, the flowering plants produce a fruit around that seed, aiding in germination, dispersal, or both. Learn about the many fascinating ways seeds are dispersed-from animal deposition, to wind and water dispersal, to seed explosion.

30 min
Water Plants Came from Land
16: Water Plants Came from Land

Learn how seagrasses, mangroves, and other aquatic plants evolved to tolerate low light levels, anaerobic and nutrient-poor sediments, and the difficulty of getting CO2 into submerged leaves and stems. They also benefit surrounding ecosystems by keeping excess nutrients from the ocean, trapping river and ocean-floor sediments, and providing habitat and protection for animals.

30 min
Why the Tropics Have So Many Plant Species
17: Why the Tropics Have So Many Plant Species

From the shade-adapted plants living on the rainforest floor to the epiphytes in the top of the canopy-and the myriad plants and animals in between-tropical regions are the most diverse ecosystems on land. In fact, by some estimates, about 40 percent of all plants live in just the canopy of the tropical rainforest. Learn about the unique ways in which bromeliads, orchids, and lianas, a...

30 min
The Complexity of Grasses and Grasslands
18: The Complexity of Grasses and Grasslands

The grassland ecosystem-steppe, prairie, savanna, and rangeland-is found on every continent except Antarctica. Estimated to cover almost one-third of the land area of the planet, grasses developed unusual adaptations related to the location of their growth tissue and their specific mechanism of photosynthesis. Learn how these adaptations have allowed grasses to flourish and play a major role...

29 min
Shrublands of Roses and Wine
19: Shrublands of Roses and Wine

Not an herb and not a tree, shrubs' in-between status carries ecological advantages allowing them to grow almost everywhere-in the under-story of forests, above the tree line in alpine regions, and in the desert. Many are fire-adapted, some communicate through volatile organic compounds released by the leaves, and others exude chemicals from their roots that prevent other plants from growing nearb...

28 min
The Desert Bonanza of Plant Shapes
20: The Desert Bonanza of Plant Shapes

From tiny desert annuals, to 200-year-old 50-foot Saguaros, Joshua trees, and the baobab, deserts contain the largest variety of plant shapes on earth. Along with these multiple morphological adaptations to a lack of water, desert plants have also developed an alternative pathway to photosynthesis, opening their stomata at night, storing the CO2, and using it during the day with closed stoma...

32 min
How Temperate Trees Change Color and Grow
21: How Temperate Trees Change Color and Grow

Trees-the largest, oldest, and tallest organisms on planet Earth-are a wonderful example of convergent evolution, with the form showing up in hundreds of unrelated plant families. While many trees are evergreen and others are drought deciduous, temperate trees lose their leaves in the winter because the trade-off of keeping a leaf from freezing doesn't offset the photosynthetic gain. But eve...

31 min
Alpine Cold Makes Plants Do Funny Things
22: Alpine Cold Makes Plants Do Funny Things

Alpine plants face a short growing season, freezing nights almost year-round, extraordinarily high light levels on cloudless days, fierce wind, and severe lack of moisture in some locations. Learn how the unique rosette and cushion morphologies allow alpine plants to thrive in this environment-as well as provide a sheltered place for other plants to germinate-and how heliotropism aids in pol...

29 min
Bad Plants Aren't So Bad
23: Bad Plants Aren't So Bad

About 600 species of plants eat animals. Others are outfitted with poison-injecting hairs you do not want to trigger. One plant provides a home for ants-a wonderful symbiosis, but not great for the animals who stroll by and take a bite. And then there are the "everyday" poison oak, ivy, and sumac. But the real plants to fear? The invasive species that have taken over ...

30 min
Modifying the Genes of Plants
24: Modifying the Genes of Plants

Genetically modified organisms are in the news almost every day. They are lauded for solving numerous agricultural problems and reviled for their perceived "Frankenstein" nature. But what is the truth about GMOs? Learn what scientists have accomplished, what might be possible in the future, and the very real dilemmas we face in this brave new world of plant science.

40 min
Catherine Kleier

Wherever we look, I think we can be surprised at what's out there in the plant kingdom.

ALMA MATER

University of California, Los Angeles

INSTITUTION

Regis University

About Catherine Kleier

Dr. Catherine Kleier is a Professor of Biology and former chair of the Department of Biology at Regis University in Denver, Colorado. Professor Kleier holds a Ph.D. in Organismic Biology, Ecology, and Evolution from the University of California, Los Angeles. She also holds an M.S. in General Science with an emphasis in botany and plant pathology from Oregon State University and a B.A. in Ecology, Population, and Organismic Biology from the University of Colorado Boulder.

The recipient of numerous honors and awards, Dr. Kleier was named Colorado Professor of the Year in 2015 by the Council for Advancement and Support of Education and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. In 2014, she was elected Faculty Lecturer of the Year at Regis University. In previous years, she was selected as a scholar for the Aspen Institute's Aspen Environment Forum and was a Visiting Fulbright Scholar at the University of Otago in New Zealand.

Professor Kleier teaches courses in plant physiology, ecology, and environmental science. Her current research includes long-term restoration ecology on trails in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, plant impacts from skiing, and urban ecology. Her laboratory work has focused on the effect of magnesium chloride on the growth and reproduction of plants.

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