The Big History of Civilizations

Rated 3 out of 5 by from Pretty low-level, repetitive I couldn't get past the second episode. Not a really erudite professor, I thought his vocabulary was limited.
Date published: 2021-01-03
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Misleading View of South Asia India was not described with updated knowledge of the peoples. The information presented was from a perspective of colonial times from the British. Through genetic studies, most Indian DNA is a mixture of both ASI and ANI DNA. While it did mention that Mohenjadaro and Harrapa were Dravidian in origins, recent studies are showing that there were no specific "invasions" or color based society as was conjectured by the British. Race as a category is unknown to traditional Indian classifications and is a byproduct of the British colonialism and classification- Race is a modern concept to the Indians- This was brought by modern concepts of racial science. The western Orientalist reconstruction of Indian history begins with the Aryans as founders of Indian civilization. This, of course, is not the narrative in the early Indian Puranic histories, which make no mention of any Aryans in this role. The invention of Aryan foundations, therefore, is a 19th century way of reading the beginnings of Indian history. Also, the lectures cite the Mahabharatha in pieces but not in a whole. Krishna the God in the Mahabharatha is actually described as Black in color and so are many of the other characters such as Draupadi, Arjuna, etc who are in different castes- Brahmans are actually described in it as beggars that people would give alms to. When one of the characters in the Mahabharatha is asked about qualities of a Brahman, skin color is never described. It is chacteristics of personality of truthfulness, charity, forgiveness, good conduct and mercy, and then is asked if a Shudra has these qualities, would that make him a Brahman, which he says yes. Hinduism was never a religion either, but a product of the Mughals calling the people of the Indus "Hindus" to differentiate themselves from the Mughals/Mohammedan. These lectures on South Asia are very narrow and misleading and is a modern product of 1900 colonialism and has not taken into account recent studies. Please use full sources and not cherry pick portions to suit an agenda that is being shown as false. As a person knowledgeable in Indian sources, I would be very hesitant to listen to any other lectures of other countries as it seems to still have a colonialist slant and not take into consideration the actual Indian context of literature as a whole.
Date published: 2020-11-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent Overview My husband and I thoroughly enjoyed this course and felt it delivered on its promise to identify the recurring themes that have contributed to the rise and fall of civilizations. Dr. Benjamin presents the information in a compelling and systematic way that provides a coherent overview of the past, and provokes a thoughtful analysis of the future.
Date published: 2020-11-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from All around the galaxy in 36 lectures Thorough, well balanced presentation of humanities presence. I enjoyed the woven thread of common themes throughout the course.
Date published: 2020-11-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Astounding common themes A great big picture view. Really good combination of high level unifying themes and colorful details. Really well done.
Date published: 2020-09-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Perfect Review I've read Guns, Germs & Steel and other writings on the subject but this course was exactly what I wanted. Because Dr. Benjamin is covering such an extreme subject matter it's a lengthy but for me a disc a day was perfect.
Date published: 2020-08-03
Rated 4 out of 5 by from "Big History" is an interesting and worthwhile way You failed to warn me that I had already purchased this course. I didn't need to buy it again!!
Date published: 2020-08-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Ambitious but Suceeds Covering the history of civilizations on earth is an ambitious, almost impossible project. But WOW. Professor Benjamin pulled it off. And in 36 lectures instead of 48+. This course presents an excellent historical trend analysis on the history of civilizations on earth at the macro level focusing on identifying the developments, inventions, and innovations and political, military, economic, cultural, and environmental history of all of the important cultures and agrarian civilizations of the ancient and modern world. I held off from buying this course for too long because I thought Professor Christian's course "Big History: The Big Bang, Life on Earth, and the Rise of Humanity" was so all-encompassing and stellar why would I want another course on Big History (especially since just about every civilization covered in this course is covered in detail in other courses)? Please do not fall into this trap. I am glad I gave it a shot to shine through on its own merit. I gave Professor Benjamin's "Foundations of Eastern Civilization" course three stars because I thought it was too long and not enough analysis....a narrative of just one dynasty falling after another with not much analysis. But with time I have come to appreciate his work on that course much more. I am not making the mistake this time: this is a five star course (a standard I hold few to). This course offered the best coverage of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia and the succession of civilizations that ruled over it than any course I've taken up to date. Common themes that were fascinating to explore were the history of human migrations into new regions and the interactions and trade networks they fostered. These migrations (usually involving pastoral nomads) typically resulted in the origins of new sedentary kingdoms. The only negatives I could find had less to do with the professor's delivery or content and more with him not being able to fit more in. He mentioned the Five Nations of Iroquois, the Nez Perce, Sioux, and Cherokee in lecture 27 (North America) but in-explicitly didn’t provide any time at all describing their society which is odd considering he generously covered just about every other civilization in the course in detail. There also wasn’t much coverage of the European states that succeeded the Roman Empire nor a lot on the other civilizations of the modern world (1600 on). The Ottoman Empire wasn’t even referenced as far as I can recall. By my analysis here is a list of the peoples that were covered in the course: - Hunting and gathering bands in the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras - Sumerian cities of ancient Mesopotamia (including the first empire of Akkad) - Elamites (Perisa/modern day Iran) - Amorites/Babylonians (Mesopotamia) - Hittites (Anatolia/modern day Turkey) - Assyrians (Mesopotamia) - Neo-Babylonian empire (Mesopotamia) - Ancient Egypt (Mediterranean) - Nubian Kush (Africa) - Phoenicians (Mediterranean) - Hebrews (Mediterranean) - Minoans (Mediterranean) - Mycenaeans (Mediterranean) - Indus Valley (south Asia/modern day India) - Indo-Aryan Vedic civilization (south Asia/modern day India) - Mauryan Empire (south Asia/modern day India) - Ancient Chinese civilizations (Yangshao and Longshan culture & the Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties) - Pastoral nomads of Eurasia (such as the Scythians and the Huns) - Oxus (Perisa/modern day Iran) - Persian Empire (modern day Iran) - Ancient Greece (Mediterranean) - Macedonia/Hellenistic empires - Etruscans (Modern day Italy) - Roman Republic and Empire - Chinese civilizations in the “early middle ages” (Sui and Tang dynasties) - Gupta Empire (south Asia/modern day India) - Persian empires in the “early middle ages” (Parthian, Kushan, and Sasanian) - Turks (originated in Mongolia/Central Asia and one branch would become the Ottoman Empire) - Scandinavian Vikings - Byzantine Empire (based out of Anatolia) - Early Russian states (Rus and Slavs) - Islamic Empires (originated in Arabia) including the Umayyads and Abbasids - Mongols (Central Asia) - Chinese civilizations in the “high middle ages” (Jin, Song, and Juan dynasties) - Hopewell (Southern Ohio) - Cahokia (Illinois) - Puebloan peoples (American southwest) - Olmec (Mesoamerica) - Zapotec (Mesoamerica) - Mayan (Mesoamerica) - Aztec (Mesoamerica) - Civilizations of Chavín de Huántar (South America) including Nazca and Mochica - Wari (South America) - Tiwanaku (South America) - Inca (South America) - Aksum (Africa) - Nok (Nigeria) - Ghana - Mali (Ghana region) - Songhai (Western Savanna) - Swahili civilizations (East Africa) including Mapungubwe, Great Zimbabwe, and Kongo - Australian Aboriginals - Lapita peoples (Pacific islands) - Polynesians (Pacific islands) - Global empires of the European powers Spain, Portugal, Holland, France, and Britain - Industrial powers Great Britain, Belgium, France, Prussia/Germany, United States, and Japan If you have any interest in history I can't see why you wouldn't want to spend some time with this course. If you can afford both this and "Big History: The Big Bang, Life on Earth, and the Rise of Humanity" I highly recommend both courses. I made the mistake of seeing it as an either or but it isn't. A perfect mega-course would be melding lectures 1-21 of Professor Christian's course (history of planet earth prior to civilizations) with Professor Benjamin's course (for the civilization piece). If you've listened to both courses and want more, another course you may want to check out is "A Brief History of the World". While it doesn't use all of disciplines of Big History (such as cosmology, geology, anthropology, and biology) and Professor Stearn's delivery can't hold a candle to Profs. Christian and Benjamin, it does offer some interesting and unique perspectives on humankind's history. But please start here. This is a gold-standard course I can't recommend enough.
Date published: 2020-03-23
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The Big History of Civilizations
Course Trailer
A Tale of Two Ancient Cities
1: A Tale of Two Ancient Cities

Jericho and Anau are two of the world's oldest cities, and their stories have much to tell us about the scope of human history. Begin the course by examining what made these cities successful, and how they differed from each other. This starting point will introduce the concept and key themes of Big History....

30 min
The Rise of Humanity
2: The Rise of Humanity

Trace the origins of the human species from the emergence of proto-humans 2.5 million years ago to the rise of Homo sapiens from about 200,000 years ago. Professor Benjamin offers perspectives from biology, anthropology, archeology, and linguistics to show what makes the human species unique-and why we have been able to flourish....

29 min
Foraging in the Old Stone Age
3: Foraging in the Old Stone Age

Although it is often skimmed over in the history books, the Paleolithic Era is the longest time in human history, ranging from 200,000 to 11,000 years ago. Understanding this period is crucial for understanding the human history that follows. See how family dynamics, migration patterns, climate change, and more affected life in this fascinating era....

31 min
Origins of Agriculture
4: Origins of Agriculture

Archaeologists continue to debate precisely why and how humanity transitioned from foraging to agriculture 10,000 years ago. Delve into the agricultural revolution to find out how some combination of climate change, population growth, and human ingenuity led to one of the most important revolutions in human history....

31 min
Power, Cities, and States
5: Power, Cities, and States

After the agricultural revolution, the next major transition in human history was the rise of cities. After introducing you to life in the early farm communities, Professor Benjamin investigates the origins of power and its relationship to the state. Discover several of the abiding features of the world's early cities....

30 min
The Era of Agrarian Civilizations
6: The Era of Agrarian Civilizations

The vast Era of Agrarian Civilizations stretches nearly 5,000 years, from 3,200 B.C.E. to 1750 C.E. and the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. Tease out the large-scale trends and patterns of this period to find out what led to the growth of agrarian civilizations as well as the key barriers these civilizations faced....

30 min
Innovations of Mesopotamia
7: Innovations of Mesopotamia

Gain new insights into civilization by looking at one of the first: the Sumerians of Mesopotamia. Here, use techniques from linguistics, genetics, archeology, climatology, and more to see how this society unfolded-and what lessons it has to offer us today. The approach in this lecture is "Big History" at its most engaging....

31 min
The Downfall of Sumer
8: The Downfall of Sumer

Wars and rumors of war abound in this next lecture on Mesopotamia. Survey the rise and fall of empires in the 1,000 years after the collapse of the Sumerians. See how laws and language barriers impacted the Babylonians, the Hittites, and the Assyrians, and how the changing environment inevitably had the last word....

31 min
Egypt: Divine Rule in the Black Land
9: Egypt: Divine Rule in the Black Land

Dive into the world of Ancient Egypt during the time of the great pharaohs. In this sweeping lecture, Professor Benjamin shows you how environmental circumstances led to Egyptian power. Examine the work of modern-day geneticists, chemists, and other scientists who are shedding new light on this mythical civilization....

30 min
Society and Culture of Egypt
10: Society and Culture of Egypt

Shift your attention from Ancient Egyptian power to the society's fascinating social, economic, and cultural achievements. Investigate Egyptian urban life, its system of trade, hieroglyphics, and religion. Thanks to its important heritage and influence on subsequent civilizations, Ancient Egyptian society remains truly astonishing....

31 min
Early Mediterranean Civilizations
11: Early Mediterranean Civilizations

The Mediterranean Sea played a key role in the development of the ancient world. Here, explore four smaller cultures that had an enormous influence on subsequent history, particularly trade and cultural exchange: the Phoenicians, the Hebrews, the Minoans, and the Mycenaeans....

30 min
Mysteries of the Indus Valley
12: Mysteries of the Indus Valley

While agrarian civilizations were flourishing in Egypt and the Mediterranean, the extraordinary Indus civilization was emerging in South Asia. Witness the development of one of the most advanced and intriguing civilizations of its time, and then tour two of its most important cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro....

30 min
South Asian Civilizations and Beliefs
13: South Asian Civilizations and Beliefs

Continue your study of South Asia. Here, Professor Benjamin traces the rise of Hinduism, Buddhism, and other religious traditions during the millennium between 1500 and 500 B.C.E. He then turns to the political and social organizations of the subcontinent, from the Indo-Aryan settlements through the Mauryan Empire....

30 min
China: Born in Isolation
14: China: Born in Isolation

Although contemporaneous with civilizations emerging in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and South Asia, East Asia's geographic isolation allowed for the development of unique ideas about government, society, and the individual. Find out about East Asian culture by exploring the rise and fall of the Shang and Zhou dynasties....

29 min
China's Dynasties and Influence
15: China's Dynasties and Influence

In this second lecture on early East Asian civilization, follow the history from the Warring States Period through the Qin and Han dynasties. Along the way, examine many of Chinese culture's most important contributions to world history, including its legal codes, and the invention of paper and printing....

29 min
The Importance of the Nomads
16: The Importance of the Nomads

Go inside the steppe environment to learn about the role militarized pastoral nomads played in world history. As you see how these societies responded to climate pressures and influenced neighboring civilizations, you will also chart the rise of the horse, which played an important role in nomadic society....

30 min
Oxus Civilization and Powerful Persia
17: Oxus Civilization and Powerful Persia

Pastoral nomads weren't the only early settlers of Central Asia. The recently discovered Oxus civilization and the Persians reveal a number of key themes for Big History, including the role of climate and geography, intensified social complexity, innovations in warfare and farming, and more....

30 min
Greece in Its Golden Age
18: Greece in Its Golden Age

Geography plays one of the most important roles in a civilization's development, and this holds true for the ancient Greeks. But it is the Greek experiments in government that drove much of their success. Tour the ancient Greek city-states of Athens, Sparta, and more to find out how they were governed, and how they dealt with conflicts....

30 min
Greek Gods, Philosophy, and Science
19: Greek Gods, Philosophy, and Science

The Greeks created one of the richest and most influential cultures in human history. From myths to music to philosophy, as you delve into this world, you'll explore the major Greek thinkers and the big questions they tackled-and gain a new understanding not just of their world, but also to better understand humanity today....

29 min
Alexander's Conquests and Hellenism
20: Alexander's Conquests and Hellenism

Although Big History looks at the macro lens, sometimes one individual truly shapes the course of human history. Alexander of Macedon is one of those people. As you'll find out in this lecture, his conquests reshaped the ancient world, leading to tremendous economic expansion, flourishing cities, and monumental advancements in science and art....

29 min
Building the Roman Republic
21: Building the Roman Republic

Rome began as an unremarkable city-state with a monarchy, but once the city established itself as a republic, Roman conquests spread dramatically across the Mediterranean. Here, review some of Rome's great leaders from its beginning through the assassination of Julius Caesar and the reign of Octavian, Caesar Augustus....

29 min
Triumphs and Flaws of Imperial Rome
22: Triumphs and Flaws of Imperial Rome

Pick up the story of Rome in the Augustan Golden Age and follow it through the infamous sack by the Visigoths. Explore the literature and propaganda of the empire, and examine the reign of some of Rome's most notorious rulers before concluding with a look at the emergence of Christianity....

29 min
New Ideas along the Silk Road
23: New Ideas along the Silk Road

The Era of Agrarian Civilizations was one of fluid borders and nomadic activity, which eventually led to dynamic trade routes between east and west. Here, Professor Benjamin transports you into the Han Dynasty's world of luxurious silks and spices. And see how the less tangible exports like ideas, arts, religion, and more were transmitted along the Silk Roads....

30 min
Chaos and Consolidation in Eurasia
24: Chaos and Consolidation in Eurasia

Between the 3rd and 6th centuries, Afro-Eurasian civilization experienced a crisis with the collapse of the Han Dynasty in the east and the end of Roman administration in the west, leading to near-universal economic contraction. Employ Big History analysis to understand the different outcomes to these events-and their influence on future history....

30 min
Islamic Expansion and Rule
25: Islamic Expansion and Rule

The expansion of the Islamic civilization between the 8th and 10th centuries played a major role in the history of Afro-Eurasian states and cultures. Survey the story of Islam from the life of Mohammed to the Sunni-Shia split to the Islamic Golden Age. Review the pillars of the faith and the culture's impact on the world....

30 min
Legacy of the Mongols
26: Legacy of the Mongols

In the early 13th century, Mongol horsemen swept out of their homeland in the steppes to conquer the known world, and they would go on to create the largest contiguous empire the world has ever seen. Enter Mongol culture and look at the violent conquests that led to a little-known Pax Mongolia before the Mongols returned to obscurity....

29 min
North American Peoples and Tribes
27: North American Peoples and Tribes

Shift your attention to the Americas, which developed on an alternate path from Afro-Eurasia. This first lecture traces the settlement of North America and investigates societies across different regions, from the southwestern deserts to the eastern woodlands. Learn about tribes such as the Iroquois nations, the Hopewell people, Pueblos, Chinooks, and more....

29 min
Agrarian Civilizations of Mesoamerica
28: Agrarian Civilizations of Mesoamerica

The unique geography of Mesoamerica-the long isthmus that runs from the present-day Panama Canal through Mexico-has driven the region's history over the millennia. Review the geologic formations and plate tectonics that created Mesoamerica, and then turn to its many cultures, including the Olmecs, the Mayans, and the Aztecs....

29 min
Culture and Empire in South America
29: Culture and Empire in South America

Round out your study of the Americas with a journey down the Andean spine and up the Amazon River to discover the many civilizations of South America, including the Nazcans, the Mochicans, and the Incas. Tour archaeological sites, and then step back to consider the Big History of the Americas compared to Afro-Eurasia....

29 min
African Kingdoms and Trade
30: African Kingdoms and Trade

Sub-Saharan Africa has often been overlooked by outside historians who are considering the rise of human civilization, yet nations such as Mali and Ghana and the Bantu and Swahili civilizations all have a rich and fascinating history. Survey the story of Africa with a special focus on sub-Saharan geography, people, and civilizations....

30 min
Lifeways of Australia and the Pacific
31: Lifeways of Australia and the Pacific

The Pacific islands represent perhaps the last great chapter in humanity's colonization of the globe. The vast Pacific made migration slow until comparatively recently, yet seafaring technologies allowed many Polynesian societies to flourish. Study the aboriginal people of Australia and New Zealand, and then learn about chiefdoms in Tonga, Samoa, Hawaii, and more....

31 min
The Advent of Global Commerce
32: The Advent of Global Commerce

In this lecture, Professor Benjamin surveys the "Malthusian Cycle" of expansion from 500 to 1750 C.E., when favorable climate, global population growth, expanding exchange networks, and rapid innovation all paved the way for modernity. Reflect on European mercantilism, global exploration, and the period's great scientific achievements....

30 min
The Industrial Revolution and Modernity
33: The Industrial Revolution and Modernity

Zoom in on an obscure corner of Europe in the 18th century, where the burning of coal served as the necessary spark to launch the world into modernity. Find out why Britain was in such a good position to become a global powerhouse during the Industrial Revolution, and watch as the railroads altered the landscape of countries around the world....

30 min
The Transformative 20th and 21st Centuries
34: The Transformative 20th and 21st Centuries

Welcome to the Anthropocene! The 20th and 21st centuries are merely an eye blink on the scale of Big History, yet these years have wrought astonishing changes in the history of human civilization-and the story of our planet as a whole. Take a look at how nationalism, global capitalism, technological advancements, and rapid population growth have transformed our world....

30 min
Civilization, the Biosphere, and Tomorrow
35: Civilization, the Biosphere, and Tomorrow

Historians traditionally focus solely on the past, but here you have the chance to apply what you've learned about Big History to see what might be in store for us in the near future. Will we run out of oil? How will we adapt to a changing climate? How will population growth affect energy consumption? Consider a variety of scenarios for the year 2100....

29 min
Civilizations of the Distant Future
36: Civilizations of the Distant Future

We can envision scenarios for the year 2100, but what about 2600? Or 3100? Reflect on the possibilities, drawing from the imaginative work of futurists and science fiction writers. See where human civilization might go-and what might happen to us along the way-on this planet, or in the universe, as Homo sapiens, or even as some future species....

31 min
Craig G. Benjamin

These big ideas of Eastern civilization emerged thousands of years ago, but they endured and shaped the long history of these regions all the way to the present.


Macquarie University


Grand Valley State University

About Craig G. Benjamin

Dr. Craig G. Benjamin is Associate Professor of History in the Frederik Meijer Honors College at Grand Valley State University (GVSU), where he teaches East Asian civilization, big history, ancient Central Asian history, and historiography. He earned his undergraduate education at The Australian National University in Canberra and Macquarie University in Sydney, and his Ph.D. in Ancient History from Macquarie University. Professor Benjamin has received several awards for teaching, including the 2012 Faculty of Distinction Award from Omicron Delta Kappa Society (a national leadership honor society) and the 2009 Student Award for Faculty Excellence from the GVSU Student Senate. He is the author of numerous articles and books, including The Yuezhi: Origin, Migration and the Conquest of Northern Bactria and Readings in the Historiography of World History. He is coauthor (with David Christian and Cynthia Stokes Brown) of Big History: Between Nothing and Everything. Professor Benjamin is an officer of the World History Association and the International Big History Association. He is also a consultant for The College Board and a member of the SAT World History Subject Committee and the Advanced Placement World History Development Committee.

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