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The 23 Greatest Solo Piano Works

Explore the greatest solo works ever written for the greatest instrument ever created in this exciting and fun course by famed musicologist Robert Greenberg.
The 23 Greatest Solo Piano Works is rated 4.6 out of 5 by 71.
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Rated 5 out of 5 by from So enjoyed this. I learned a great deal about these different pieces of music and the history around them. As usual, Robert Greenberg is very entertaining while presenting serious thoughts.
Date published: 2022-12-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Music Appreciation I have about as much knowledge of music as a stone but have always enjoyed listening to piano concertos, so this class was definitely one for me. Even so, much of the terminology was over my head initially. Prof. Greenberg did his best to explain and repeat, and I thoroughly appreciated his humor and dramatics (with tongue in cheek). I also developed a deep appreciation for and admiration of the talents and dedication of concert pianists; wish I could thank them personally. I feel I have gotten a lot out of these presentations despite my basic ignorance of the subject. To borrow one of Dr. Greenberg's terms, I was truly "blown away" by one of the pieces played by Dr. Melkonyan.
Date published: 2022-07-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from The course is worth purchasing just to have the opportunity to listen to Dr. Greenburg's lectures. He introduces you to the composers as real people and provides the historical and social context in which they lived. I am not a pianist so much of the technical aspects of their compositions are lost to me, but would still recommend this course without reservation.
Date published: 2022-06-03
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Learned so much, very engaging prof, inspiring! This is the first course we have listened to/watched by Prof. Greenburg. We were beyond thrilled. We learned so much more than we expected and thoroughly enjoyed every lecture. We are a mother/son duo that do Great Courses daily as a tea time break from homeschooling. The 11 year old absolutely loved the series and it inspired him to challenge himself on the piano and work more on his compositions. It has helped inspire me to challenge myself in my own piano playing. The pianists that perform the pieces are amazing and it's wonderful to see multiple styles of playing. Visual and audio examples throughout really help. He says you can watch them in any order, but we really enjoyed watching them all in order because it followed the progression of the history of the piano and how music expanded. We love that much of it was put into context of what was happening in history. We will definitely be doing more courses from Prof. Greenburg in the future!
Date published: 2022-02-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A real gem! Glad I bought it! This is a great course on many levels. It will appeal to pianists, music historians, and those interested in piano design. I am an advanced amateur pianist, so I greatly enjoyed the performances by 3 excellent pianists, but I also enjoyed Prof. Greenberg's enclycopedic knowledge of music pedagogy and history. His educated sense of humor added much to the presentation, as when he opined Beethoven's and Liszt's compositions invited the pianist to "beat the snot out of the piano", or that Schumann's disinterest in the study of law as "the interest a vegan has in foie gras". An altogether pleasant and informative course!
Date published: 2021-11-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Interesting perspectives The more listening experience you have, the more you will get out of these lectures. Professor Greenberg presents interesting information about the composers and how the pieces came into being. Many excerpts accompany the lectures, although the works being presented are never played in full.
Date published: 2021-11-08
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Very detailed I am enjoying the course but it is quite hard going.
Date published: 2021-09-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Robert Greenberg at his best! I bought this last month and it has exceeded all expectations.
Date published: 2021-09-01
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The piano has inspired many of the greatest compositional works in the Western concert repertoire since the mid-18th century. These historic milestones in piano writing are celebrated for their compositional mastery and their extraordinary power to move listeners and mirror human experience; their use of the piano in groundbreaking or unique ways; and the fact that they have stood the test of time. Now, in The 23 Greatest Solo Piano Works, explore more than 200 years of solo piano works that Professor Robert Greenberg considers to be among the most exceptional landmarks in the literature. You'll study 23 works carefully chosen to highlight the most significant compositional and pianistic achievements in the solo piano repertoire.


Robert Greenberg

For thousands of years cultures have celebrated themselves through their music. Let us always be willing and able to join that celebration by listening as carefully as we can to what, through music, we have to say to one another.


San Francisco Performances

Dr. Robert Greenberg is Music Historian-in-Residence with San Francisco Performances. A graduate of Princeton University, Professor Greenberg holds a Ph.D. in Music Composition from the University of California, Berkeley. He has seen his compositions-which include more than 45 works for a wide variety of instrumental and vocal ensembles-performed all over the world, including New York, San Francisco, Chicago, Los Angeles, England, Ireland, Greece, Italy, and the Netherlands.

He has served on the faculties of the University of California, Berkeley; California State University, Hayward; and the San Francisco Conservatory of Music, and has lectured for some of the most prestigious musical and arts organizations in the United States, including the San Francisco Symphony, the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, the Van Cliburn Foundation, and the Chicago Symphony. For The Great Courses, he has recorded more than 500 lectures on a range of composers and classical music genres.

Professor Greenberg is a Steinway Artist. His many other honors include three Nicola de Lorenzo Composition Prizes and a Koussevitzky commission from the Library of Congress. He has been profiled in various major publications, including The Wall Street Journal; Inc. magazine; and the London Times.

You can find more music content from Robert Greenberg on Patreon:

By This Professor

The 23 Greatest Solo Piano Works
Music as a Mirror of History
Great Music of the 20th Century
Symphonies of Beethoven
The 30 Greatest Orchestral Works
How to Listen to and Understand Great Music, 3rd Edition
The 23 Greatest Solo Piano Works


Piano Starts Here!

01: Piano Starts Here!

Begin by reflecting on the life of the concert pianist and the extraordinary rigors and demands of this unique profession within the music world. Then trace the history of the harpsichord, the piano's predecessor, and how the piano, capable of a huge sonic range, evolved from its beginnings in 1700 into the modern concert instrument. Consider the range of composers included in this course and the ...

50 min
J. S. Bach-The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book One

02: J. S. Bach-The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book One

As a point of entry to this vastly influential work, learn about the aesthetic of the High Baroque, with its duality of exuberant expression and intellectual control. Define the highly controlled fugue as a "polyphonic" musical form, and the free-form prelude that precedes each fugue in Bach's scheme. Then explore the "well tempered" tuning system and Bach's encyclopedic use of musical genres in t...

49 min
J. S. Bach-Goldberg Variations

03: J. S. Bach-Goldberg Variations

Trace the roots of this iconic masterpiece and the purported circumstances of its creation. Penetrate its complexity by digging into its "concentric" structure-the groups of variations and larger divisions in the material that form the work's musical architecture. In particular, discover the remarkable "trinities"- successive groups of three variations, each trinity comprising character pieces, to...

50 min
Mozart-Piano Sonata in C Minor, K. 457

04: Mozart-Piano Sonata in C Minor, K. 457

In realizing the expressive scope of his keyboard compositions, Mozart single-handedly enlarged the scale, virtuosity, and importance of the piano sonata. Track Mozart's rise as a keyboard prodigy and his transition from the harpsichord to writing music specifically conceived for the piano. Through the great C Minor Sonata, grasp his lyric, operatic use of the piano; rich melodic variety; dynamic ...

46 min
Beethoven-The Appassionata Sonata

05: Beethoven-The Appassionata Sonata

First, learn how Beethoven's relationship with the organ led to the orchestral power and sonority of his piano works. Also trace how the Appassionata grew from the composer's psychological self-reinvention following his tragic hearing loss. In the sonata's opening, see how Beethoven creates a compelling dramatic narrative through persistent dissonances and ambiguous harmonies. Witness how the chor...

48 min
Beethoven-Diabelli Variations, Op. 120

06: Beethoven-Diabelli Variations, Op. 120

Arguably the greatest of all works for solo piano, these glorious variations were written on an invitation from composer Anton Diabelli. Grasp the extraordinary ways in which Beethoven varies the theme, using allusion, humor, and parody. Follow the progression of the three groups of variations, from the first group's cumulative unfolding to the second group's dissociations and contrasts, leading t...

51 min
Schubert-Piano Sonata No. 21 in B-flat Major

07: Schubert-Piano Sonata No. 21 in B-flat Major

Among relevant details of the composer's life, learn about Schubert's tragic struggle with ill health, Beethoven's influence as a role model, and the importance of song in the character of Schubert's music. In the beloved B-flat Major Sonata, delineate the three ravishing thematic melodies that compose the first movement. Savor the nostalgic melancholy and slow-changing harmonies of the three-part...

48 min
Chopin-Preludes, Op. 28

08: Chopin-Preludes, Op. 28

As context for studying the music of Chopin, delve into the aesthetics of 19th-century Romanticism, its emphasis on self-expression, and its model of the artist-hero. Also glimpse Chopin's painstaking process of creation in the writing of the preludes. Discover the lyric intimacy, harmonic ingenuity, and expressive nuance of these exquisite miniatures, as each prelude evokes a single emotional env...

49 min
Chopin-Ballade in G Minor, Op. 23

09: Chopin-Ballade in G Minor, Op. 23

Chopin's music for the piano was directly impacted by the evolution of the instrument itself. First, study two innovations in piano design that produced more powerful and resonant pianos, and grasp the symbiotic relationship between Chopin the pianist and Chopin the composer. Take apart the musical architecture of the G Minor Ballade, focusing on its unusual thematic structure, to see how Chopin c...

48 min

10: Schumann-Kreisleriana

Trace the origins of this landmark of Romanticism in Schumann's fascination with the novels of E. T. A. Hoffman, his anguished courtship of future wife Clara Wieck, and his impulse to create art that fused music, literature, and autobiography. In the eight extraordinary movements of Kreisleriana, consider how Schumann writes a spiritual diary in sound, using expressive thematic melodies and harmon...

51 min
Liszt-Years of Pilgrimage

11: Liszt-Years of Pilgrimage

This lecture explores the phenomenal legacy of Franz Liszt as piano virtuoso, composer, and innovator in piano writing. Encounter the passionate, demonic figure of Liszt, the ultimate virtuoso-hero, packing concert halls and raising audiences to heights of ecstasy and adulation. Through his Years of Pilgrimage, learn how Liszt redefined what was physically possible in piano playing, creating dazzl...

46 min
Liszt-Sonata in B Minor

12: Liszt-Sonata in B Minor

Here, probe further into the extraordinary life and contribution of Liszt. Follow the events of his trailblazing virtuoso career and his near burnout that led to the introspective period in Weimar that produced the B Minor Sonata. Analyze the large-scale structure of this magisterial work and its metaphoric meaning based in the narrative of Goethe's Faust. Hear how Liszt recasts and transforms the...

49 min
Brahms-Handel Variations, Op. 24

13: Brahms-Handel Variations, Op. 24

Contemplate the naming of this work (Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel), as it reveals Brahms's spiritual links to the musical past and his individualist stance as a Romantic-era composer. Learn also about defining influences in Brahms's life that shaped his musical destiny. Follow the unfolding of the great Handel Variations in six groups of variations of rich and diverse content, buildin...

47 min
Brahms-Six Pieces for Piano, Op. 118

14: Brahms-Six Pieces for Piano, Op. 118

In this lecture's opening, explore Brahms's musical aesthetics, a pioneering synthesis that combined 18th-century formal procedures with a fully Romantic expressive content. Also note how his personality and extreme self-criticism affected his creative output. Uncover the riches of the six pieces of Opus 118, highlighting the compositional ingenuity of the wistfully beautiful Intermezzo in A, the ...

49 min
Mussorgsky-Pictures at an Exhibition

15: Mussorgsky-Pictures at an Exhibition

In 19th-century Russia, Mussorgsky and his contemporaries rejected the influence of German composers in seeking to create a music that would be purely Russian. In the kaleidoscopic movements of Pictures at an Exhibition, each based on a visual artwork, experience the power and directness of Mussorgsky's non-Western European musical language, from his incarnation of fantastic creatures and comic fl...

50 min

16: Debussy-"The Sunken Cathedral"

Here, journey into Debussy's early life as he broke with the musical past, developing new approaches to tonality and sonority to create stunningly original piano works. In this extraordinary prelude, study five elements of Debussy's revolutionary style, used to evoke the mythical cathedral of Ys rising from the sea. In particular, observe how he uses "modal" melodies and harmonies, rhythmic fluidi...

45 min
Debussy-Preludes, Book One

17: Debussy-Preludes, Book One

Begin this lecture with reflections on Debussy's personality and artistic influences, including that of French Symbolist poetry, as they influenced his musical creations. In his first book of Preludes, discover the remarkable compositional innovations that allowed him to craft these superlative short pieces. Focus on the storytelling content, ethereal textures, nuance, and harmonic original...

49 min

18: Albeniz-Iberia

Albeniz's magnum opus for the piano celebrates the culture of the Andalucía region of Spain. Identify the characteristic elements of Andalusian folk music, such as the Phrygian mode, Flamenco rhythms, and traditional dance forms, and how Albeniz incorporated them into the lush sonic palette of this work. In compelling excerpts from the 12 pieces of Iberia, hear how the score p...

49 min
Ravel-Valses nobles et sentimentales

19: Ravel-Valses nobles et sentimentales

Explore the evolution of the waltz as a popular dance and musical form, and how the Viennese waltz, paradoxically, became a metaphor for both civility and tragedy. Learn about Ravel's creative process and character and the likely personal meaning behind this suite. Experience the rich harmonic textures and huge expressive range of these eight pieces, from passionate exuberance to dreamlike wistful...

50 min
Scriabin-Piano Sonata No. 5

20: Scriabin-Piano Sonata No. 5

Beginning as a post-Romantic composer, Alexander Scriabin made a dramatic transition, embracing theosophy and a vision of music as mystical revelation. In this daring, modernist piece, see how Scriabin shapes a musical narrative in which tonal and nontonal music coexist. From the sonata's dissonant opening, follow the interweaving of the first, tonal theme with a lyric, contrasting theme based in ...

47 min

21: Rachmaninoff-Etudes-tableaux

Rachmaninoff's etudes-tableaux combine programmatic (storytelling) content with great pianistic challenges for the performer. As background, explore Rachmaninoff's dual life as a composer and a peerless piano virtuoso, and the linking of his musical destiny with the American-made Steinway piano. In the etudes, see how Rachmaninoff uses ingenious virtuoso effects, layered rhythms, and...

50 min
Prokofiev-Piano Sonata No. 7

22: Prokofiev-Piano Sonata No. 7

In a story of tragic poignancy, learn about Prokofiev's early international success and his extraordinary political naïvete as he returned to live in the Soviet Union during the terror under Stalin. In the Sonata no. 7, follow the unfolding of the first movement's two themes, alternating brutal force with quiet rumination. Grasp the expressive content of the second movement, based on S...

50 min
Copland-Piano Variations

23: Copland-Piano Variations

American concert music emerged in the early 20th century as a synthesis of musical types and influences. Trace its dynamic mix of elements, encompassing West African rhythm and melodic structures, blues, ragtime, jazz, popular song, and European modernism. In this homegrown masterwork, study how Copland used "microtonal" melodies, jazz and ragtime rhythms, and a relentless, machine-age energy to c...

48 min
The A-List

24: The A-List

The course concludes with a lighthearted look at another side of the piano literature: works written by the great composers for amateur pianists. Survey nine iconic piano pieces from Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Rubinstein, Dvorak, and Debussy; the stories behind their writing; and the often amusing ways in which these works have taken root in our culture. Contemplate the scop...

52 min